|Grenadier Guard. Citation, see End Note.|
The English Civil War
This paper is about two elite regiments in the British Army. It cannot be told without mentioning the English Civil War – a series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century between the Royalists and the Parliamentarians (the former also known as Cavaliers and the latter as Roundheads). The war began in 1642 and ended in 1651 with the defeat of the Royalists and the execution by the Parliamentarians of King Charles I (the father of King Charles II) in 1649. The period of political and military conflict that followed, called the Commonwealth, lasted until 1660. The monarchy was restored in England on 29th May 1660, after the end of the English Civil War and the Commonwealth period, when King Charles II, who had been living in exile in continental Europe during the Commonwealth period, returned to England and took the throne.
Coldstream Guard. Citation, see End Note.
The restoration of the monarchy marked the end of the republic and the beginning of the restoration period in English history.
The Execution of King Charles I
King Charles I was executed on 30th January 1649 after being found guilty of high treason by a special court established by the English Parliament. During the Commonwealth period, King Charles I was imprisoned and put on trial for high treason. The charges against him included that he had “levied war” against the English Parliament and had sought to “subvert the ancient and fundamental laws and liberties of this nation”. After a trial that lasted several weeks, the court found him guilty and sentenced him to death. King Charles I was beheaded on a scaffold outside the Banqueting House at Whitehall Palace in London.
King Charles I ruled England, Scotland, and Wales from 1625 until 1649, when he was deposed and later executed for high treason. He is most famous for his role in the English Civil War, which was fought between the Royalists (who supported Charles I) and the Parliamentarians (who opposed him).
Many factors contributed to the outbreak of the English Civil War, and not all of them can be attributed to Charles I alone. Some historians have pointed to Charles’ autocratic and absolutist approach to rule as a key factor, while others have argued that he was simply a pawn in a larger struggle between different factions in English society.
One key issue that contributed to the conflict was Charles’ attempts to raise revenue and fund his government without the consent of Parliament. Charles also clashed with Parliament over issues of religion and foreign policy, and his attempts to impose his own views on these matters sparked further resentment and opposition. Ultimately, Charles’ refusal to compromise and his stubborn adherence to his own views led to a breakdown in relations between the King and Parliament and the outbreak of war.
The Coldstream Guards and the Grenadier Guards are elite regiments in the British Army. They are separate regiments of the British Army and were formed at different times and for quite different reasons:
- The Coldstream Guards was formed in 1650 as part of the Commonwealth Army when England was a republic to serve as a personal bodyguard for Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth. It was first called ‘Monck’s Regiment of Foot’ and was later renamed the ‘Coldstream Guards’ after the Scottish village near the border with England, where General George Monck (later to become the Duke of Albemarle) had assembled his troops before marching into London. When the monarchy was restored in 1660, the Coldstream Guards became a part of the British Army. The Coldstream Guards is the oldest continuously serving regiment in the British Army and has a long history of service in various conflicts, including both World Wars.
- The Grenadier Guards was formed in 1656 by King Charles II to provide him with a personal bodyguard. When King Charles II formed the Grenadier Guards, the Coldstream Guards were not under his control. The Grenadier Guards is one of the oldest and most prestigious regiments in the British Army and is known for its ceremonial duties, including guarding the British monarch at Buckingham Palace and St. James’s Palace.
Both Coldstream Guards and the Grenadier Guards regiments are part of the Household Division, a group of elite regiments that are responsible for ceremonial duties and protection of the British monarch:
- The Grenadier Guards
- The Coldstream Guards
- The Scots Guards
- The Irish Guards
- The Welsh Guards
- The Royal Hussars (Prince of Wales’s Own)
- The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons)
The Life Guards Life Guards on Parade. Citation, see End Note.
The Life Guards are a cavalry regiment of the British Army and part of the Household Cavalry, along with the Blues and Royals. The Life Guards are also known as “His Majesty’s Life Guard of the Household Cavalry“, a formal title used in military and ceremonial contexts. The regiment is sometimes referred to informally as the “Life Guards Cavalry” or simply as the “Life Guards.”
The Life Guards and the Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons) have origins dating back to the mid-17th century. Household Cavalry is responsible for ceremonial duties, including protecting the British monarch, and has an operational role as a reconnaissance regiment. The Life Guards were formed in 1660 and are the oldest regiment in the Regular Army in continuous active service. They are based at Combermere Barracks in Windsor. The Life Guards are trained in ceremonial duties and traditional cavalry skills, as well as being equipped with advanced weapons and vehicles for use in various military operations. They serve as part of the Household Division, which is responsible for protecting the British monarch and participating in ceremonial events. The Life Guards also perform operational duties as part of the British Army’s armoured formations.
The Coldstream Guards
The Coldstream Guards is the oldest continuously serving regular regiment in the British Army. As part of the Household Division, one of its principal roles is the protection of the monarchy; due to this, it often participates in state ceremonial occasions. The Regiment has consistently provided formations on deployments around the world and has fought in the majority of the major conflicts in which the British Army has been engaged.
Coldstream Guards on Exercise 2013. Citation see End Note.
The Regiment has been in continuous service and has never been amalgamated. It was formed on 13th August 1650 as ‘Monck’s Regiment of Foot’ and was then renamed ‘The Lord General’s Regiment of Foot Guards’ after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. With Monck’s death in 1670, it was renamed again as ‘The Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards’ after the location in Scotland (see below) from which it marched to help restore the monarchy in 1660. Its name was finally changed to ‘The Coldstream Guards’ in 1855, which is still its title.
Monck’s Regiment stayed in Coldstream on the Scottish border for three weeks in late 1659. Prompted by widespread anarchy, Monck set out on 1st January 1660 to march his regiment to London.
The Regiment and the English Civil War
The origin of The Coldstream Guards lies in the English Civil War when Lieutenant-General Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector, gave Colonel George Monck permission to form a regiment as part of the New Model Army. Monck took men from the regiments of George Fenwick (1st Baronet) and Sir Arthur Haselrig (alternative spellings “Heselrig” and “Haselrigge”, then Governor of Newcastle), five companies each, and formed Monck’s Regiment of Foot. Less than two weeks later, before the end of August 1650, this force took part in the Battle of Dunbar, at which the Roundheads defeated the forces of Charles Stuart.
On Oliver Cromwell’s death in 165, his son Richard became Lord Protector. He was the second and last Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, but lacked authority. He tried to mediate between the army and civil society and allowed a Parliament containing many disaffected Presbyterians and Royalists to sit. Suspicions that civilian councillors were intent on supplanting the army were brought to a head by an attempt to prosecute a major-general for actions against a Royalist. The military made a threatening show of force against Richard and may have held him in detention. He formally renounced power and abdicated nine months after succeeding his father.
After Richard Cromwell’s abdication, Monck gave his support to the Stuarts, and, on 1st January 1660, he crossed the River Tweed into England at the village of Coldstream, from where he made a five-week march to London. He arrived in London on 2nd February and helped in the Restoration of the monarchy. For his help, Monck was given the Order of the Garter, and his regiment was assigned to keep order in London. However, the new parliament soon ordered his regiment to be disbanded along with all of the other regiments of the New Model Army. Before that could happen, Parliament was forced to rely on the help of the regiment against the rebellion by the Fifth Monarchists led by Thomas Venner on 6th January 1661. The regiment defeated the rebels, and on 14th February 1661, the men of the regiment symbolically laid down their arms as part of the New Model Army and were immediately ordered to take them up again as a royal regiment of The Lord General’s Regiment of Foot Guards, a part of the Household Troops.
The regiment was placed as the second senior regiment of Household Troops, as it entered the service of the Crown after the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards, but it answered to that by adopting the motto Nulli Secundus (Second to None) as the regiment is older than the senior regiment. The regiment always stands on the left of the line when on parade with the rest of the Foot Guards, thus standing “second to none”. When Monck died in 1670, the Earl of Craven took command of the regiment, and it adopted a new name, the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards.
Today, the structure of the regiment and affiliated band includes:
- Regimental Headquarters, at Wellington Barracks, London
- 1st Battalion, at Victoria Barracks, Windsor (Light Infantry part of 11th Infantry Brigade and Headquarters South East)
- No.7 Company, based at Wellington Barracks, London (maintaining the traditions and colours of the old 2nd Battalion placed in suspended animation in 1993)
- No 17 Company, based at Hammersmith (the regiment’s reserve unit, administered as part of 1st Battalion, London Guards).
- Band of the Coldstream Guards, based at Wellington Barracks, London, part of the Royal Corps of Army Music.
Companies that make up the regiment are traditionally numbered. New officers destined for the regiment at Sandhurst or the Infantry Battle School, form the No. 13 Company, while Guardsmen under training at ITC Catterick make up No. 14 Company. No. 7 Company is one of the incremental companies formed to undertake public duties in London and Windsor and maintains the colours and traditions of the former 2nd Battalion.
The Coldstream Guards have played a prominent role in many major conflicts and wars in which Britain was involved – including the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, World War I, and World War II. The Coldstream Guards has also participated in peacekeeping operations around the world, including in Bosnia and Kosovo. Today, the Coldstream Guards continue to serve as an elite regiment of the British Army and are based at Wellington Barracks in London.
The regiment still predominantly recruits from the North-East and South-West of England.
The regiment has been awarded 113 Battle Honours. Thirteen Coldstreamers have been awarded the Victoria Cross and one, the George Cross. A video setting out the regimental Victoria Cross collection can be seen at: https://coldstreamguards.org.uk/pages/history.
Management of the Coldstream Guards
There is a small staff of four civil servants headed up by the Regimental Adjutant, a retired Colonel, plus a regular Captain who is part-time equerry to HM the King and recruiting officer, a regular WO2 (RQMS) responsible for the issue and accounting for ceremonial clothing and equipment, a regimental clerk, storeman, and PRI clerk. There are several volunteers who work on the archives and organising events.
The principal function of RHQ is to provide a secretariat for the Colonel of the Regiment and the Regimental Lieutenant Colonel so that they can carry out their leadership roles, which are:
- Cultivating the soul and ethos of the Regiment:
- Leading the Regimental hierarchy.
- Maintaining civic and territorial connections.
- Selecting potential officers.
- Providing advice to retired and serving officers.
- Maintaining esprit-de-corps through:
- The observance of high standards and ethos.
- Control, or advice on, regimental organisations, charities, funds, property, museums, memorials and commemorations.
- Promotion of internal competition.
- Attendance at parades, services of remembrance, repatriations, funerals, reunions, support to casualties and unit visits.
- Promoting Regimental interests through:
- Maintaining goodwill and liaison between all parts of the Regiment, including affiliated cadets, recruits undergoing training at ITC Catterick, regulars, reservists, veterans and families.
- Liaison with the MoD regarding any changes to titles, dress, accoutrements or anything of a ceremonial matter that requires approval of the Monarch.
The day-to-day activities of the Coldstream Guards are managed by the Regimental Lieutenant Colonel (Lieutenant General Sir James Bucknall, KCB, CBE, who succeeded Sir Michael Rose in 2009) and the Regimental Colonel (King Charles III). The Regimental Lieutenant Colonel is responsible for the operational command of the regiment, while the Regimental Colonel has a more ceremonial role and serves as the figurehead and leader of the regiment.
“The Coldstream Guards Line Up For The Changing Guards” by andrew_j_w is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0.
The Grenadier Guards
The Grenadier Guards (GREN GDS) is an infantry regiment of the British Army. It can trace its lineage back to 1656 when Lord Wentworth’s Regiment was raised in Bruges to protect the exiled Charles II. In 1665, this regiment was combined with John Russell’s Regiment of Guards to form the current regiment, known as the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards. Since then, the regiment has filled both a ceremonial and protective role and an operational one. In 1900, the regiment provided a cadre of personnel to form the Irish Guards; while later, in 1915, it also provided the basis of the Welsh Guards upon their formation.
The regiment’s early history saw it take part in numerous conflicts, including the War of the Spanish Succession, the War of the Austrian Succession, the Seven Years’ War, and the Napoleonic Wars; at the end of this period, the regiment was granted the “Grenadier” designation by a Royal Proclamation. During the Victorian era, the regiment participated in the Crimean War, the Anglo-Egyptian War, the Mahdist War, and the Second Boer War.
During the First World War, the Grenadier Guards was expanded from three battalions to five, of which four served on the Western Front, while later during the Second World War, six battalions were raised, and several were converted to an armoured role as part of the Guards Armoured Division. These units fought in France, North-West Europe, North Africa and Italy. After the Second World War, the regiment was reduced first to three battalions, then to two, and finally to one battalion in the mid-1990s. Major deployments during this time have included operations in Palestine, Malaya, Cyprus, Northern Ireland, the Gulf War, Afghanistan and Iraq.
First Captain of the Grenadier Guards
The first captain of the Grenadier Guards was Sir Charles Lucas. Lucas was a member of the King’s lifeguard during the English Civil War and was appointed as the captain of the Grenadier Guards when the regiment was formed in 1656. He served as the captain of the Grenadier Guards until he died in 1660. After Lucas’s death, the command of the Grenadier Guards passed to Sir Edward Dering, who served as the regiment’s colonel until he died in 1689.
The Grenadier Guards trace their lineage back to 1656 when Lord Wentworth’s Regiment was raised from gentlemen of the Honourable Artillery Company by the then heir to the throne, Prince Charles (later King Charles II), in Bruges, in the Spanish Netherlands (present-day Belgium), where it formed a part of the exiled King’s bodyguard.
A few years later, a similar regiment known as John Russell’s Regiment of Guards was formed. In 1665, these two regiments were combined to form the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards, consisting of 24 companies of men. Since then, the Grenadier Guards have served eleven Kings (including King Charles III) and four Queens, including Queen Elizabeth II.
Throughout the 18th century, the regiment took part in a number of campaigns, including the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the regiment gained the name “Grenadier” in July 1815 following a Royal Proclamation.
During the Victorian era:
- The regiment participated in the Crimean War and fought at the Alma river, Inkerman, and Sevastopol. Four members of the 3rd Battalion received the Victoria Cross for their involvement in the Crimean War.
- The regiment fought at the Battle of Tel el-Kebir during the Anglo-Egyptian War in 1882 and then the Mahdist War in Sudan, during the 1885 Suakin Expedition and in 1898, at the Battle of Omdurman.
- During the Second Boer War, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were deployed to South Africa, where they took part in several battles, including the Battle of Modder River and the Battle of Belmont, as well as several smaller actions.
- In 1900, seventy-five men from the regiment were used to raise a fourth Guards regiment, known as the Irish Guards, in honour of the role that Irish regiments had played in the fighting in South Africa.
Management: The Grenadier Guards 
The Colonel of the Regiment is Her Majesty The Queen Consort, who was appointed Colonel by His Majesty King Charles III on 21st December 2022:
- Colonel of the Regiment: HM The Queen Consort
- Regimental Lieutenant Colonel: Maj Gen J M H Bowder OBE, formerly Grenadier Guards
- Regimental Adjutant: Maj (Retired) J P W Gatehouse, formerly Grenadier Guards
- Regimental Treasurer & Association General Secretary: Lt Col (Retired) J A Keeley MBE
- Officer Recruiting and Assistant Equerry: Capt E Bennett
- Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant: WO2(RQMS) D Oliver
On behalf of The Regimental Lieutenant Colonel, Major General James Bowder OBE, the day-to-day management of Regimental Headquarters is the responsibility of Major (Retired) James Gatehouse. He is assisted by Captain Ted Bennett and WO2(RQMS) Dwain Oliver.
Regimental Headquarters is based at Wellington Barracks, London, where it provides the interface between the ‘serving’ Regiment, past members of the Regiment, the Regimental Association and the public. Regimental Headquarters maintains the ‘fabric of the Regiment’ and is responsible for the organisation of all Regimental events. The Regimental Adjutant is the guardian of the ethos, customs and standards of the Regiment.
Uniform and Insignia
The uniforms of the British Army currently exist in twelve categories ranging from ceremonial uniforms to combat dress (with full dress uniform and frock coats listed in addition). Uniforms in the British Army are specific to the regiment (or corps) to which a soldier belongs. Full dress presents the most differentiation between units, and there are fewer regimental distinctions between ceremonial dress, service dress, barrack dress and combat dress, though a level of regimental distinction runs throughout.
Senior officers of full colonel rank and above do not wear a regimental uniform (except when serving in the honorary position of a Colonel of the Regiment); rather, they wear their own ‘staff uniform’ (which includes a coloured cap band and matching gorget patches in several orders of dress).
As a rule, the same basic design and uniform colour are worn by all ranks of the same regiment (albeit often with increased embellishment for higher ranks). There are several significant uniform differences between infantry and cavalry regiments; furthermore, several features of cavalry uniform were (and are) extended to those corps and regiments deemed for historical reasons to have ‘mounted status’ (namely: the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, Royal Corps of Signals, Army Air Corps, Royal Logistic Corps and Royal Army Veterinary Corps). Useful sources for detailed information about British Army uniforms can be found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniforms_of_the_British_Army
From a distance, the full dress uniforms worn by the men of the five Regiments of Foot Guards look so similar that they seem almost identical, yet there are differences and some similarities. Taking the similarities first for all five regiments, all the officers and Guardsmen wear:
- A black bearskin cap.
- A scarlet tunic with a dark blue collar, shoulder strips pipped in white and dark blue and white cuffs.
- Dark blue trousers with a red stripe down the seam of each leg,
- A white leather buff belt.
- Gold buttons bearing the monarch’s insignia.
Differences (between the Coldstream Guards and the Grenadier Guards) can be seen in the following Table:
The black bearskin cap is approximately 18 inches tall (45cm), weighs 1.5 pounds (680g) and is made from the fur of a Canadian black bear. Officers’ bearskins are dyed black and come from the female Canadian brown bear, which has thicker, fuller fur.
The Inspector of Regimental Colours office was instituted in 1806 to regulate the design of the various Colours, Guidons, and Standards of the Army. Regulations for these had been laid down in 1768 but were widely ignored, and the designs were left to the whim of individual Colonels.
The first Inspector was George Nayler (1764-1831), York Herald, later Garter King of Arms. Since then, the office of Inspector has normally been held by the Garter King of Arms. As the Army’s heraldic adviser, he is responsible for approving all new designs for Colours, Guidons, Standards, Cap Badges, Defence Agencies etc.
The artwork for all new designs is prepared at the College of Arms by a heraldic artist, signed by the Inspector, and then submitted to The Monarch, via the Ministry of Defence, for formal approval. Once the Monarch has signed the painting, it is returned to the College for safekeeping.
A ceremony to commemorate those who have lost their lives whilst serving in United Nations peacekeeping missions around the world was held at the Cenotaph in London on 20th May 2010. Citation, see End Note.The band (Grenadier Guards) in the Garden at Buckingham Palace in 2019. Citation, see End Note.
The Coldstream Guards and the Grenadier Guards have a long and distinguished history of service to the British monarchy and the nation. It is important to remember that their experiences and perspectives would have been shaped by the broader historical and political contexts in which they served. By considering these contexts and the long-term consequences of the conflicts and campaigns in which the Coldstream Guards were involved, we can better understand and appreciate their role in shaping the history of the British Army and the nation.
Founded in 1650 as part of the Commonwealth Army, the Coldstream Guards (initially known as “Monck’s Regiment of Foot”) served as a personal bodyguard for Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth. When the monarchy was restored in 1660, and King Charles II took the throne, the Coldstream Guards became a part of the British Army and have served every monarch since then.
The Coldstream Guards have played several different roles over the years, including ceremonial and protective duties and operational functions in various conflicts and campaigns. During the Victorian era, for example, the Coldstream Guards were involved in several colonial campaigns, such as the Crimean War, the Anglo-Egyptian War, and the Mahdist War, which reflected the expansionist and imperialistic foreign policy of the time. These conflicts had significant consequences not only for the countries and regions in which they took place but also for the soldiers of the Coldstream Guards who served in them.
However, the Coldstream Guards were not simply passive actors in these events, but rather played a crucial role in shaping and defining them. For example, the bravery and sacrifice of the Coldstream Guards who fought at the Battle of Tel el-Kebir during the Anglo-Egyptian War contributed to the military victory of the British forces and helped to establish British dominance in the region. Similarly, the Coldstream Guards who fought in the Second Boer War played a key role in the eventual defeat of the Boer forces and the establishment of the Union of South Africa.
While the Grenadier Guards also have a long and storied history of service to the British monarchy and the nation, their role and responsibilities have evolved over time in response to changing historical and political circumstances. For example, during the Victorian era, the Grenadier Guards were involved in several colonial campaigns, such as the Crimean War, the Anglo-Egyptian War, and the Mahdist War, which reflected the expansionist and imperialistic foreign policy of the time. These conflicts had significant consequences not only for the countries and regions in which they took place but also for the soldiers of the Grenadier Guards who served in them. Many of the Grenadier Guards who fought in these campaigns were exposed to new cultures, languages, and ways of life, and their experiences would have shaped their perspectives and understanding of the world in ways that were not necessarily reflected in the official narratives and histories of the time.
The Grenadier Guards played a crucial role in shaping and defining the world after and as a result of the military campaigns in which they took part. For example, the bravery and sacrifice of the Grenadier Guards who fought at the Battle of Tel el-Kebir during the Anglo-Egyptian War contributed to the military victory of the British forces and helped to establish British dominance in the region. Similarly, the Grenadier Guards who fought in the Second Boer War played a key role in defeating the Boer forces and establishing the Union of South Africa. These events had significant long-term consequences for the region and the relationships between the British Empire and the countries and peoples it encountered. It is important to consider these broader historical and political contexts when examining the history of the Grenadier Guards.
Both regiments have played an important role in shaping the history of the British Army and the nation, and their contributions should not be overlooked. The Coldstream Guards and the Grenadier Guards have a long tradition of service and dedication, and their legacy will continue to be an important part of the history of the British Army and the nation.
Sources and Further Reading
Books about the Grenadier Guards
Reminiscences of Captain Gronow: Formerly of the Grenadier Guards, and MP for Stafford; Being Anecdotes of the Camp, the Court, and the Clubs, at the close of the Last War with France, (Classic Reprint, Paperback), Author Unknown, published by Forgotten Books (15 October 2018), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Reminiscences-Captain-Gronow-Grenadier-Anecdotes/dp/133127944
From Eton To Ypres: The Letters and Diaries of Lt Col Wilfrid Abel Smith, Grenadier Guards, 1914-15, by Charles Abel Smith, published by The History Press (4 July 2016), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Eton-Ypres-Abel-Smith/dp/0750981792/
First or Grenadier Guards 2nd and 3rd Battalions in South Africa 1899-1902, by F. Lloyd and Hon. A. Russell, published by Naval and Military Press; New edition (13 February 2009), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Grenadier-Guards-Battalions-Africa-1899-1902/dp/1845741943/
The Grenadier Guards in the Great War of 1914-1918, Vol. 1 of 3: Vol. 1 of 3 (Illustrated Edition), by Sir Frederick Edward Grey Ponsonby, independently published (26 November 2019), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Grenadier-Guards-Great-War-1914-1918/dp/B09K1XFP49/
The Origin and History of the First or Grenadier Guards, Vol. 1 of 3: From Documents in the State Paper Office, War Office, Horse Guards, Contemporary History, Regimental Records, Etc, (Classic Reprint), by F. W. Hamilton, published by Forgotten Books (3 September 2018), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Origin-History-First-Grenadier-Guards/dp/1332515762/
Books about the Coldstream Guards
- Project Gutenberg EBook of A History of the Coldstream Guards From 1815 to 1895, by C.B. Ross-of-Bladensburg, available for (free) download at: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/58852/58852-h/58852-h.htm
- Coldstream Guards: Soldiers and their Stories, by Andrew Thornton, published by CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (16 August 2017), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Coldstream-Guards-Soldiers-their-Stories/dp/1548294829/
- Coldstream Guards (Men-at-Arms), by Charles Grant (Author) and Michael Roffe (Illustrator), published by Osprey Publishing (15 June 1971), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Coldstream-Guards-Men-at-Arms-Charles-Grant/dp/0850450578/
- The Coldstream Guards, 1914-1918 Vol. I, by Lt. Col. Sir John Foster George Ross-of-Bladensburg, published by Naval & Military Press (23 May 2007), available at https://www.amazon.co.uk/COLDSTREAM-GUARDS-1914-1918-1/dp/1847346138/
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End Notes and Explanations
Attribution: Photo: Sgt Dan Harmer, RLC/MOD, OGL v1.0OGL v1.0, via Wikimedia Commons. ↑
Picture Citation: Life Guards on Parade. Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London, England. Attribution: Ceremony.lifeguard.london.arp.jpg: Arpingstonederivative work: PRA, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons. Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ceremony.lifeguard.london.arp.new.jpg ↑
Picture Citation: Coldstream Guards on Duty, 2013. Attribution: WO2PBainesMC, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons. Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Section_Second_in_Command.jpeg The file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. ↑
Source: via Wayback machine at: https://web.archive.org/web/20130906170010/http://coldstreamguards-boro.org/Regimental%20History.htm ↑
Source: Harwood, Brian (2006). Chivalry and Command: 500 Years of Horse Guards (illustrated, annotated ed.). Osprey Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 1-84603-109-5. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coldstream_Guards ↑
Source: via Wayback machine at: https://web.archive.org/web/20130906170010/http://coldstreamguards-boro.org/Regimental%20History.htm ↑
Sources: (1) “Coldstream Guards [UK]”. 20 December 2007, (2) “Regimental Headquarters“. Coldstream Guards, and (3) “Number 7 Company”. Coldstream Guards. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coldstream_Guards ↑
Sources: (1) “Coldstream Guards”. www.army.mod.uk, (2) Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: “Trooping the Colour 2016”. YouTube. 17 June 2016, (3) “1st Battalion”. Coldstream Guards, (4) “Regular Army Basing Matrix by Formation and Unit” (PDF). Army Families Federation, (5) “Order of Battle, Manpower, and Basing Locations”. parliament.uk, and (6) “British Army units from 1945 on – Coldstream Guards”. british-army-units1945on.co.uk. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coldstream_Guards ↑
Sources: (1) “Trooping the Colour 2000 (The Preamble)”. YouTube. 8 April 2019 (2) Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: “Trooping the Colour 2016”. YouTube. 17 June 2016, and (3) “1st Battalion”, Coldstream Guards. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coldstream_Guards ↑
Sources: (1) “Number 7 Company”. Coldstream Guards, (2) Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: “Trooping the Colour 2016”. YouTube. 17 June 2016, (3) “Ceremonial duties – British Army Website”. 10 November 2014 and (4) “Coldstream Guards – British Army Website”. 7 January 2015. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coldstream_Guards ↑
Source: “Minutes of an Annual General Meeting of the London Regiment Association held on Monday 28 February 2022 at 19.00 hours at Battalion Headquarters of the London Regiment, 27 St John’s Hill, London SW11 1TT” (PDF). Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coldstream_Guards ↑
Sources: (1) “Number 7 Company”. Coldstream Guards, (2) “Coldstream Guards”. www.army.mod.uk, (3) Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: “Trooping the Colour 2016”. YouTube. 17 June 2016, (4) “Contact us – British Army Website”. 23 January 2015, and (5) “Coldstream Guards Band”. Coldstream Guards. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coldstream_Guards ↑
Source: “History – British Army Website: Grenadier Guards”. 29 September 2010. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenadier_Guards ↑
Picture Citation: Previous Colonels-in-chief of the Regiment, the late Elizabeth II and Prince Philip in 2007. Attribution: Jon, CC BY 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons. Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trooping_the_Colour_Queen_Duke_of_Edinburgh_16th_June_2007.jpg. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. ↑
Explanation: It should be noted that the rank of colonel did not exist when the Grenadier Guards was formed, the highest rank in the British Army then being a lieutenant colonel. The rank of colonel was not introduced until the late 17th century. ↑
Source: “Britain and Belgium mark 360th anniversary of the Grenadier Guards”. Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). 2 September 2016. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenadier_Guards ↑
Source: Fraser, David (1998) . The Grenadier Guards. Men-at-Arms Series # 73. pp. 14-15. London: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-284-8. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenadier_Guards ↑
Source: “Army Dress Regulations 2017” (PDF). Ministry of Defence. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniforms_of_the_British_Army ↑
Comment: For many years, the Ministry of Defence and the British Army have attempted to find a synthetic alternative to the fur in the cap, but as yet no suitable alternative has yet been found. ↑
Picture Citation: Attribution: English: Foreign and Commonwealth Office, OGL v1.0OGL v1.0, via Wikimedia Commons. Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:International_Day_of_United_Nations_Peacekeepers_(4623734775).jpg This file is licensed under the Open Government Licence version 1.0 (OGL v1.0). Read more about the event at https://www.gov.uk/government/news/international-day-of-united-nations-peacekeepers ↑
Picture Citation: Attribution: The White House from Washington, DC, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons. Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:President_Trump_and_First_Lady_Melania_Trump%27s_Trip_to_the_United_Kingdom_(47995721161).jpg ↑
Ebook produced by KD Weeks, Brian Coe and the Online Distributed Proofreading https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coldstream_Guards and other