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Changes in The  Highway Code

Picture Credit: “London Bus” by Tim Spouge is marked with CC BY-ND 2.0.
The changes from 29th January 2022

Rules for all types of road users have been updated in The Highway Code to improve the safety of people walking, cycling and riding horses, from 29th January 2022.

The Department for Transport and Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency has published the changes for England, Scotland, and Wales[1]. Guidance for Northern Ireland is available separately[2]. This paper deals with the changes affecting road users in England, Scotland, and Wales.

The changes follow a public consultation[3] on a review of The Highway Code to improve road safety for people walking, cycling or riding horses. It ran from July to October 2020 and received more than 20,000 responses from the public, businesses and other organisations. Most people who responded were in favour of all the changes.

To sum it up, it’s important that all road users:

  • are aware of The Highway Code
  • are considerate to other road users
  • understand their responsibility for the safety of others

The following are the changes that you need to know about.

Hierarchy of road users
The introduction section of The Highway Code has been updated to include three new rules about the new ‘hierarchy of road users.’

The hierarchy places those road users most at risk in the event of a collision at the top of the hierarchy. It does not remove the need for everyone to behave responsibly. It’s important that all road users:

  • are aware of The Highway Code;
  • are considerate to other road users; and
  • understand their responsibility for the safety of others

The three new rules are numbered H1, H2, and H3, which you can read by clicking on these links:

People crossing the road at junctions
The updated code clarifies that:

  • when people are crossing or waiting to cross at a junction, other traffic should give way;
  • if people have started crossing and traffic wants to turn into the road, the people crossing have priority, and the traffic should give way; and
  • people driving, riding a motorcycle, or cycling must give way to people on a zebra crossing and people walking and cycling on a parallel crossing.

Picture Credit: “Hand in Hand” by garryknight is marked with CC BY 2.0.

A parallel crossing is similar to a zebra crossing but includes a cycle route alongside the black and white stripes.

You can read the updated rules by clicking on these links:

Walking, cycling or riding in shared spaces

Picture Credit: “aah the cycle sign” by t3mplar is marked with CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

There is new guidance in the code about routes and spaces which are shared by people walking, cycling or riding horses. People cycling, riding a horse or driving a horse-drawn vehicle should respect the safety of people walking in these spaces, but people walking should also take care not to obstruct or endanger them.

Cyclists are asked to:

  • not pass people walking, riding a horse or driving a horse-drawn vehicle closely or at high speed, particularly from behind;
  • slow down when necessary and let people walking know they are there (for example, by ringing their bell);
  • remember that people walking may be deaf, blind or partially sighted; and
  • not pass a horse on the horse’s left.

You can read the updated rules by clicking on these links:

Positioning in the road for cyclists
There is updated guidance for people cycling about positioning themselves, which includes:

  • riding in the centre of their lane on quiet roads, in slower-moving traffic and at the approach to junctions or road narrowings; and
  • keeping at least 0.5 metres (just over 1.5 feet) away from the kerb edge (and further where it is safer) when riding on busy roads with vehicles moving faster than them.

Cyclists in groups
The updated code explains that people cycling in groups:

  • should be considerate of the needs of other road users when riding in groups; and
  • can ride two abreast – and it can be safer to do so, particularly in larger groups or when accompanying children or less experienced riders.

People cycling are asked to be aware of people driving behind them and allow them to overtake (for example, by moving into a single file or stopping) but only when it’s safe to do so.

People cycling passing parked vehicles
The updated code explains that people cycling should:

  • take care when passing parked vehicles, leaving enough room (a door’s width or 1 metre) to avoid being hit if a car door is opened
  • watch out for people walking into their path

You can read the updated rules by clicking on these links:

Overtaking when driving or cycling
You may cross a double-white line if necessary (provided the road is clear) to overtake someone cycling or riding a horse if they are travelling at ten miles per hour or less (Rule 129).

There is updated guidance on safe passing distances and speeds for people driving or riding a motorcycle when overtaking vulnerable road users, including:

  • leaving at least 1.5 metres (5 feet) when overtaking people cycling at speeds of up to 30 miles per hour and giving them more space when overtaking at higher speeds;
  • passing people riding horses or driving horse-drawn vehicles at speeds under ten miles per hour and allowing at least 2 metres (6.5 feet) of space; and
  • allowing at least 2 metres (6.5 feet) of space and keeping to a low speed when passing people walking in the road (for example, where there’s no pavement).

Wait behind them and do not overtake if it’s unsafe or not possible to meet these clearances.

People cycling passing slower-moving or stationary traffic
The updated code confirms that people cycling may pass slower-moving or stationary traffic on their right or left, but they should proceed with caution as people driving may not see them, particularly important when:

  • approaching to junctions
  • when deciding whether it is safe to pass lorries or other large vehicles

Click these links to read the updated rules:

Cyclists at junctions
The code has been updated to clarify that when turning into or out of a side road, cyclists should give way to people walking who are crossing or waiting to cross.

There is new advice about new special cycle facilities at some junctions. Some junctions now include small cycle traffic lights at eye-level height, allowing cyclists to move separately from or before other traffic. People cycling are encouraged to use these facilities to make their journey safer and easier.

There is also new guidance for people cycling at junctions with no separate facilities. The code recommends that people cycling proceed as if they were driving a vehicle with no separate cyclist facilities. This includes positioning themselves in the centre of their chosen lane, where they can do this safely to:

  • make them as visible as possible
  • avoid being overtaken where this would be dangerous

Cyclists turning right
The code now includes advice for people cycling using junctions where signs and markings tell them to turn right in 2 stages. These are:

  • stage 1 – when the traffic lights turn green, go straight ahead to the location marked by a cycle symbol and turn arrow on the road, and then stop and wait
  • stage 2 – when the traffic lights on the far side of the junction (now facing the people cycling) turn green, complete the manoeuvre

Cyclists have priority when going straight ahead at junctions
The code clarifies that when people cycling are going straight ahead at a junction, they have priority over traffic waiting to turn into or out of a side road, unless road signs or markings indicate otherwise. Cyclists are asked to watch out for people driving intending to turn across their path, as people driving ahead may not be able to see them.

Click these links to read the updated rules:

People cycling, riding a horse and driving horse-drawn vehicles at roundabouts
The Highway Code has been updated to clarify that people driving or riding a motorcycle should give priority to people cycling on roundabouts. The new guidance says people on a motorcycle should:

  • not attempt to overtake people cycling within that person’s lane
  • allow people cycling to move across their path as they travel around the roundabout

The code already explains that cyclists, horseriders and those driving a horse-drawn vehicle may stay in the left-hand lane of a roundabout when they intend to continue across or around the roundabout. Guidance has been added to explain that people driving should take extra care when entering a roundabout to make sure they do not cut across people cycling, riding a horse or driving a horse-drawn vehicle who are continuing around the roundabout in the left-hand lane.

Click these links to read the updated rules:

Parking, charging and leaving vehicles
The code recommends a new technique when leaving vehicles. It’s sometimes called the ‘Dutch Reach’.

Where people driving or passengers in a vehicle can do so, they should open the door using their hand on the opposite side to the door they are opening. For example, using their left hand to open the door on their right-hand side – it will make them turn their head to look over their shoulder behind them so that they’re then less likely to cause injury to:

  • people cycling or riding a motorcycle passing on the road
  • people on the pavement

Using an electric vehicle charge point
The code includes guidance about using electric vehicle charging points for the first time. When using one, people should:

  • park close to the charge point and avoid creating a trip hazard for people walking from trailing cables
  • display a warning sign if you can
  • return charging cables and connectors neatly to minimise the danger to other people and avoid creating an obstacle for other road users

Click on this link to read the rule:

Find out about all the changes and stay up to date
In total, ten sections of The Highway Code have been updated, with 50 rules being added or updated. You can find a summary of all the changes in The Highway Code updates list[4].

The Highway Code is essential reading for everyone. It’s updated regularly, so it’s important that everyone reads it – not just learner drivers. Many of the rules in the Code are legal requirements, and if you disobey the rules, you’re committing a criminal offence. If you do not follow the other rules in the code, it can be used in evidence in court proceedings to establish liability.

You can:

Other ways to stay up to date
To stay up to date, you can also:

Knowing and applying the rules in The Highway Code could significantly reduce road casualties. Cutting the number of deaths and injuries on our roads every day is a responsibility we all share. The Highway Code can help us discharge that responsibility. Further information on driving/riding techniques can be found in ‘The Official DVSA Guide to Driving – the Essential Skills’, ‘The Official DVSA Guide to Riding – the Essential Skills’ and The Official Highway Code 2022 edition (April).[5]

Sources and Further Reading

Picture Credit:Traffic at London Bridge at Sunset” by pj_in_oz is marked with CC BY-NC 2.0.

  1. At:

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  3. See:

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  5. Obtainable from:

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