How British Women gained the Right to Vote
On 21st November 1918, the Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918 was passed, allowing women to be elected to Parliament. Ten years later, women in England, Wales and Scotland received the right to vote on the same terms as men (over the age of 21) with the passing in Parliament of the Representation of the People Act 1928.
Suffrage in Britain
Some suffrage supporters refused to participate in the England and Wales 1911 census, claiming that they should not be counted on the census if they were not treated as citizens with a voice. Others made protest statements on the census forms, and some enumerators made comments of their own.
Speaking up for Suffrage
From the mid-19th century, women across Britain engaged in a struggle to secure the Vote. Mill workers in Lancashire and around the northwest organised their trades unions to lobby for better conditions and political representation. In 1866, a group of women organised a petition demanding that some women should have the same political rights as men. They took it to Henry Fawcett and John Stuart Mill – two Members of Parliament who supported universal suffrage. John Stuart Mill added an amendment to the Reform Act to give women the same political rights as men. Its defeat, by 196 votes to 73, led to the formation of the London National Society for Women’s Suffrage (LNSWS). It also spurred the foundation in 1867 of the Manchester National Society for Women’s Suffrage (MNSWS), whose meeting in the city’s Free Trade Hall on 14th April 1868 was a rare occasion for women speaking out on their rights in public and is widely regarded as the start of the women’s suffrage campaign.
Picture Credit: WSPU poster by Hilda Dallas, 1909.
Attribution: Hilda Dallas, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons. File URL: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Votes_For_Women.jpg
Women’s suffrage had become a national movement in the Victorian era. Women were not explicitly banned from voting in Great Britain until the Reform Act of 1832 and the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835. In 1872 the fight for women’s suffrage became a national movement with the formation of the National Society for Women’s Suffrage and later the more influential National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS). As well as in England, women’s suffrage movements in Wales, Scotland and other parts of the UK gained momentum. The movements shifted sentiments in favour of woman suffrage by 1906. It was at this point that the militant campaign began with the formation of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU). The issue of women’s ‘inferior’ status had plagued society throughout the centuries in British history. Almost impossible to believe today, when the Reform Act of 1832 was passed, it was a formal acknowledgement to the people of Britain that women did not form part of the electorate and were therefore excluded.
The Pankhurst family from Manchester are probably the best known British suffrage campaigners. But they weren’t the only northerners demanding “Votes For Women!” Suffrage campaigners across Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, Manchester and Liverpool joined the movement, campaigning locally and across the UK.
Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel, Sylvia, and Adela, founded the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) in Manchester in 1903 – before moving their campaign headquarters to London in 1906. London played a crucial role in the suffrage campaign. But the movement was a national one, with suffragists and suffragettes demonstrating across the country.
Other leading suffragettes of the time were:
- Millicent Fawcett
- Teresa Billington-Greig
- Charlotte Despard
- Edith Garrud
Before 1918, no women were allowed to vote in parliamentary elections. In the early 20th century, there were two main groups active in the campaign for women’s suffrage (a term used to describe the right to vote). These two groups were the ‘suffragists’ who campaigned using peaceful methods such as lobbying, and the ‘suffragettes’ who were determined to win the right to vote for women by any means. Their militant campaigning sometimes included unlawful and violent acts, which attracted much publicity.
List of British Suffragettes
- Wilhelmina Hay Abbott (1884–1957) – editor and feminist lecturer, an officer of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance
- Violet Aitken (1886–1987) – suffragette activist in the WSPU, imprisoned and force-fed, editor of The Suffragette
- Margaret Aldersley (1852–1940) – suffragist, feminist and trade unionist
- Mary Ann Aldham (1858–1940) – famously slashed a portrait in the Royal Academy in 1914
- Janie Allan (1868–1968) – suffragette activist and significant financial supporter of the WSPU; imprisoned for suffrage activities
- Doreen Allen (1879–1963) – militant suffragette
- Mary Sophia Allen (1878–1964) – women’s rights activist, pioneer policewoman, later involved in far-right political activity
- Katharine Russell, Viscountess Amberley (1844–1874) – an early advocate of birth control, president of the Bristol and West of England Women’s Suffrage Society
- Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836–1917) – physician, feminist, first dean of a British medical school, first female mayor, and magistrate in Britain
- Louisa Garrett Anderson (1873–1943) – Chief Surgeon of Women’s Hospital Corps, Fellow of Royal Society of Medicine, jailed for her suffragist activities
- Helen Archdale (1876–1949) – suffragette and journalist
- Jane Arthur (1827–1907) – educationalist, feminist and activist; campaigned for women’s suffrage
- Margaret Ashton (1856–1937) – suffragist, local politician, pacifist
- Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor (1879–1964) – politician, socialite, the first woman to sit as a Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons
- Barbara Ayrton-Gould (1886–1950) – Labour politician and co-founder of the United Suffragists; jailed for her suffrage activities
- Sarah Jane Baines (1866–1951) – feminist and social reformer; jailed at least fifteen times
- Minnie Baldock (c. 1864 – 1954) – co-founded the first London branch of the WSPU
- Frances Balfour (1858–1931) – president of the National Society for Women’s Suffrage
- Florence Balgarnie (1856–1928) – British suffragette, speaker, pacifist, feminist, temperance activist
- Rachel Barrett (1874–1953) – a member of the WSPU; editor of The Suffragette
- Janet Barrowman (1879–1955) – Scottish member of the WSPU; jailed for her suffragist activities
- Dorothea Beale (1831–1906) – educational reformer, author, Principal of the Cheltenham Ladies’ College
- Lydia Becker (1827–1890) – biologist and astronomer, founder and publisher of the Women’s Suffrage Journal
- Edith Marian Begbie (1866–1932) – militant suffragette who was force-fed
- Mary Bell (1885–1943) – first Scottish women magistrate
- Sarah Benett (1850–1924) – Treasurer of the WFL and suffragette
- Ethel Bentham (1861–1931) – doctor, politician, member of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies
- Annie Besant (1847–1933) – socialist, theosophist, women’s rights activist, writer, orator, and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule
- Rosa May Billinghurst (1875–1953) – a member of the WSPU; jailed multiple times
- Teresa Billington-Greig (1877–1964) – co-founder of Women’s Freedom League; jailed for her suffragist activities
- Catherine Hogg Blair (1872–1946) – Scottish suffragette and founder of the Scottish Women’s Rural Institute, and member of the WSPU
- Violet Bland (1863–1940) – a member of the WSPU, was force-fed in prison
- Barbara Bodichon (1827–1891) – educationalist, artist, feminist, activist for women’s rights
- Lillie Boileau (1869–1930) – an early member of the Women’s Freedom League and the Union of Ethical Societies
- Margaret Bondfield (1873–1953) – politician, chair of the Adult Suffrage Society, first woman Cabinet minister in the UK
- Elsie Bowerman (1889–1973) – lawyer, member of the WSPU, RMS Titanic survivor
- Janet Boyd (1850–1928) – militant suffragette and hunger-striker
- Jane Esdon Brailsford (1876–1937) – Scottish suffragette
- Agnes Brown (1866–1943) – Scottish suffragist and writer
- Annie Leigh Browne (1851–1936) – co-founder of College Hall, London and of Women’s Local Government Society
- Constance Bryer (1870–1952) – suffragette
- Evaline Hilda Burkitt (1876–1955) – first suffragette to be force-fed
- Frances Buss (1827–1894) – headmistress, pioneer of women’s education, member of the Kensington Society
- Josephine Butler (1828–1906) – feminist, author, social reformer concerned about the welfare of prostitutes
- Edward Caird (1835–1908) – founder member of the Glasgow and West of Scotland Association for Women’s Suffrage
- Mona Caird (1854–1932) – English novelist and essayist who wrote in support of women’s suffrage
- Mabel Capper (1888–1966) – an activist in the WSPU; imprisoned many times and was force-fed
- Isabella Carrie (1878–1981) – a schoolteacher and safe house-keeper for the WSPU
- Dorothea Chalmers Smith (1874–1944) – doctor and suffragist
- Georgina Fanny Cheffins (1863–1932) – arrested for window smashing, held in HM Prison Holloway, force-fed
- Jane Clapperton (1832–1914) – philosopher, birth control pioneer, social reformer and suffragist
- Alice Clark (1874-1934) served on the executive committee of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies
- Mary Jane Clarke (1862–1910) – arrested for window smashing, held in HM Prison Holloway, force-fed
- Anne Clough (1820–1892) – teacher and promoter of higher education for women
- Lila Clunas (1876–1968) – Scottish suffragette and Labour party councillor
- Jane Cobden (1851–1947) – A liberal politician who was active in many radical causes; co-founder of the Women’s Franchise League
- Leonora Cohen (1873–1978) – militant British suffragette and trade unionist; bodyguard for Emmeline Pankhurst
- Florence Annie Conybeare (1872–1916) – campaigned in support of women’s suffrage, organised a meeting of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies
- Selina Cooper (1864–1946) – textile mill worker, local magistrate, member of the North of England Society for Women’s Suffrage
- Jessie Craigen (c. 1835–1899) – working-class suffragist who gave speeches all around the country
- Virginia Mary Crawford (1862–1948) – Catholic suffragist, journalist and author, a founder of the Catholic Women’s Suffrage Society.
- Helen Crawfurd (1877–1954) – suffragette, rent strike organiser and communist activist
- Maud Crofts (born 1889) – suffragist, author and the first woman accepted as a solicitor
- Mary Crudelius (1839–1877) – an early supporter of women’s suffrage and campaigner for women’s education
- Helen Cruickshank (1886–1975) – was a Scottish poet and suffragette
- Emily Davies (1830–1921) – co-founder of Kensington Society and Britain’s first women’s college, Girton College, Cambridge University
- Emily Wilding Davison (1872–1913) – a militant activist and key member of the WSPU, died in a protest action at a racetrack (Epsom)
- John McAusland Denny (1858–1922) Scottish businessman, Conservative Party politician and founder member of the Glasgow and West of Scotland Association for Women’s Suffrage
- Charlotte Despard (1844–1939) – novelist, Sinn Féin activist, co-founder of the Women’s Freedom League
- Agnes Dollan (1887–1966) – Scottish suffragette, political activist and pacifist
- Violet Mary Doudney (1889–1952) – teacher and militant suffragette
- Katherine Douglas Smith (1878–) – militant suffragette and WSPU organiser
- Flora Drummond (1878–1949) – organiser for WSPU, imprisoned nine times for her activism in the Women’s Suffrage movement, inspiring orator
- Marion Wallace Dunlop (1864–1942) – artist and suffragette
- Elsie Duval (1892–1919) – a member of WSPU and first woman released under the Cat and Mouse Act
- Maude Edwards – suffragette
- Norah Elam (1878–1961) – a prominent member of the WSPU; imprisoned three times
- Elizabeth Clarke Wolstenholme Elmy (1833–1918) – public speaker and writer; formed the first British suffragist society, first paid employee of the British Women’s Movement
- Dorothy Evans (1888–1944) – activist and organiser, worked for WSPU; imprisoned several times
- Kate Williams Evans (1866–1961) – suffragette
- Caprina Fahey (1883–1959) – received the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) Hunger Strike Medal “for Valour” in 19145F
- Millicent Fawcett (1847–1929) – feminist, writer, political and union leader; president of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies
- Helen Fraser (1881–1979) – suffragist, speaker and artist
- Elizabeth Fry (1780–1845) – prison reformer, social reformer, philanthropist
- Edith Margaret Garrud (1872–1971) – first trainer of ‘the Bodyguard’, formed in response to the Cat and Mouse Act
- Katharine Gatty (1870–1952) – journalist, lecturer and militant suffragette for the WSPU
- Mary Gawthorpe (1881–1973) – socialist, trade unionist, editor, active in the suffrage movement in both England and the United States
- Ellison Scotland Gibb (1879–1970) – suffragette and chess player
- Margaret Skirving Gibb (1877–1954) – suffragette and chess player
- Marion Gilchrist (1864–1952) – doctor and suffragist
- Helga Gill (1885–1928) – a Norwegian-born British suffragist who spoke at meetings
- Katie Edith Gliddon (1883–1967) – watercolour artist and militant suffragette.
- Frances Gordon (born c. 1874) – prominent in the militant wing of the Scottish women’s suffrage movement; imprisoned and force-fed
- Gerald Gould (1885–1936) – writer, known as a journalist, reviewer, essayist, and poet; co-founder of United Suffragists
- Mary Pollock Grant (1876–1957) – Scottish suffragette, Liberal Party politician, missionary and policewoman.
- Elsa Gye (1881–1943) – Scottish suffragette, imprisoned for the cause, led WSPU branches in Nottingham and Newcastle
- Joan Lavender Bailie Guthrie (Laura Grey) (1888–1914) – suffragette and actress, imprisoned for window smashing
- Beatrice Forbes-Robertson Hale (1883–1967) – the actress, lectured and wrote on women’s rights
- Cicely Hale (1884–1981) – health visitor and author; worked for the WSPU and The Suffragette
- Nellie Hall (1895–1929) – god-daughter of Emmeline Pankhurst, member of the WSPU; imprisoned twice
- Hazel Hunkins Hallinan (1890–1982)
- Cicely Hamilton (1872–1952) – actress, writer, journalist, feminist
- Ishbel Hamilton-Gordon (1857–1939) – author, philanthropist, and an advocate of woman’s interests
- Marion Coates Hansen (1870–1947) – an early member of the WSPU, co-founder of the Women’s Freedom League
- Keir Hardie (1856–1915) – Scottish founder of the Labour Party, later a campaigner for women’s suffrage
- Emily J. Harding (1850–1940) – British artist, illustrator and suffragette
- Jane Ellen Harrison (1850–1928) – linguist, feminist, co-founder of modern studies in Greek mythology, a supporter of women’s suffrage
- Evelina Haverfield (1867–1920) – aid worker and nurse in WWI, member of the WSPU, arrested several times
- Annie Elizabeth Helme – suffragist, JP, first female mayor of Lancaster in 1932.
- Margaret Hills (1882–1967) – teacher, public speaker, feminist and socialist; organiser of the NUWSS Election Fighting Fund
- Edith Mary Hinchley (1870–1940) – artist and member of the Women’s Freedom League
- Reverend Claude Hinscliff (1875–1964) – founder of the Anglican Church League for Women’s Suffrage
- Emily Hobhouse (1860–1926) – exposed the squalid conditions in concentration camps in South Africa during the Second Boer War; active in the People’sSuffrage Federation
- Olive Hockin (1881–1936) – artist and author; imprisoned after arson attacks suspected to be suffragette-related
- Winifred Holtby (1898–1935) – feminist, socialist, and writer, including a new voters guide for women in 1929
- Edith Sophia Hooper (1868–1926) – suffragist and biographer of Josephine Butler
- Winifred Horrabin (1887–1971) – socialist activist, journalist, member of the WSPU
- Clemence Housman (1861–1955) – author, illustrator, co-founder of the Suffrage Atelier
- Laurence Housman (1865–1959) – playwright, writer, illustrator, co-founder of the Suffrage Atelier
- Elizabeth How-Martyn (1875–1954) – a member of the WSPU and co-founder of the Women’s Freedom League
- Ellen Hughes (1867–1927) – Welsh writer, poet, suffragist
- Florence Hull (born 1878) – suffragette, member of WSPU, imprisoned in January 1913
- Agnes Husband (1852–1929) – Scottish politician and suffragette
- Elsie Inglis (1864–1917) – Scottish doctor, secretary of the Edinburgh National Society for Women’s Suffrage
- Margaret Irwin (1858–1940) – trade unionist, suffragist and founder member of the Glasgow and West of Scotland Association for Women’s Suffrage
- Christina Jamieson (1864–1942) – writer and suffragette
- Maud Joachim (1869–1947) – suffragette
- Ellen Isabel Jones (d.1948) – suffragette and close associate of the Pankhursts
- Helena Jones (born 1870) – Welsh doctor and member of the WSPU, later critical of Emmeline Pankhurst
- Mabel Jones (1865–1923) – doctor and suffragette
- Annie Kenney (1879–1953) – leading figure in the WSPU
- Jessie Kenney (1887–1985) – a leading suffragette, assaulted the British prime minister and the Home Secretary at a golf course
- Nell Kenney (1876–1953) – suffragette
- Jessie Keppie (1868–1951) – artist and subscriber to Glasgow and West of Scotland Association for Women’s Suffrage
- Alice Stewart Ker (1853–1943) – doctor, health educator and suffragette
- Edith Key (1872–1937) – secretary-organiser of the WSPU, Huddersfield branch, and author of the only surviving regional WSPU minute book
- Mary Stewart Kilgour (1851–1955) – educationalist and writer, co-founder of the Union of Practical Suffragists
- Adelaide Knight, (1871–1950) – secretary for the WSPU in Canning Town
- Anne Knight (1786–1862) – social reformer, pioneer of feminism, early suffragette and pamphleteer
- Annie Knight (1895–2006) – suffragette in Aberdeen Scotland
- Aeta Adelaide Lamb (1886–1928) – longest-serving organiser in the WSPU
- George Lansbury (1859–1940) – social reformer and politician who allied himself with the WSPU
- Jennie Lee (1904–1988) – a Scottish politician, elected MP aged 24 in 1929 by-election before suffrage was extended to women under 30
- Lilian Lenton (1891–1972) – an active member of the WSPU, winner of a French Red Cross for her service in WWI
- Victoria Lidiard (1889–1992) – WPSU member and reputed to be the longest surviving British Suffragette6F
- Thomas Martin Lindsay (1843–1914) – Scottish historian, professor and founder member of the Glasgow and West of Scotland Association for Women’s Suffrage
- Kathleen Lyttelton (1856–1907) – women’s activist, editor and writer
- Lady Constance Lytton (1869–1923) – speaker and campaigner for prison reform, votes for women, and birth control
- Florence Macfarlane (1867–1947) – nurse and militant member of the WSPU
- Margaret Mackworth (1883–1958) – activist and director of more than thirty companies
- Sarah Mair (1846–1941) – campaigner and founder
- Lavinia Malcolm (1847–1920) – Scottish suffragist and local Liberal Movement politician, the first Scottish woman to be elected to a local council (1907) and the first woman Lord Provost of a Scottish burgh town, in Dollar, Clackmannanshire
- Edith Mansell Moullin (1859–1941) – suffragist, settlement worker, and Welsh feminist organisation founder
- Kitty Marion (1871–1944) – actress and political activist
- Dora Marsden (1882–1960) – anarcho-feminist, editor of literary journals, and philosopher of language
- Charlotte Marsh (1842–1909) – joined the WSPU in March 1907, set up the Independent WSPU in March 1916
- Selina Martin (1882–1972) – activist
- Harriet Martineau (1802–1876) – social theorist and writer
- Eleanor Marx (1855–1898) – activist and translator
- Flora Masson (1856–1937) – nurse, editor and writer
- Helen Matthews – Scottish suffragette and women’s footballer
- Isabella Fyvie Mayo (1843–1914) – poet, novelist, suffragist, and reformer
- Mary Macarthur (1880–1921) – general secretary of the Women’s Trade Union League and was involved in the formation of the National Federation of Women Workers and National Anti-Sweating League
- Ann Macbeth (1875–1948) – artist and suffragist
- Lilly Maxwell (1800–1876) suffragist
- Elspeth McClelland (1879–1920) – architect and suffragette, ‘human letter’ sent with Daisy Solomon
- Janet McCallum (1881–1946) – trade unionist and suffragist
- Agnes Syme Macdonald (1882–1966) – Scottish suffragette who served as the secretary of the Edinburgh branch of the WSPU before setting up the Edinburgh Women Citizens Association (WCA) in 1918
- Agnes McLaren (1837–1913) – doctor and secretary of the Edinburgh National Society for Women’s Suffrage alongside her stepmother, Priscilla Bright McLaren
- Alice McLaren (1860–1945) – doctor, Gynecologist, suffragist and advocate for women’s health and women’s rights
- Eva McLaren (1852–1921) – suffragist, writer, and political campaigner
- Priscilla Bright McLaren (1815–1906) – anti-slavery activist, Scottish suffragist, founder and president of Edinburgh National Society for Women’s Suffrage
- Chrystal Macmillan (1872–1937) – politician, barrister, feminist and pacifist
- Frances McPhun (1880–1940) – suffragette who served two months in Holloway prison, sister of Margaret McPhun
- Margaret McPhun (1876–1960) – suffragette who served two months in Holloway prison, sister of Frances McPhun
- Frances Melville (1873–1962) – suffragist, advocate for higher education for women in Scotland, and one of the first women to matriculate at the University of Edinburgh
- Jessie C. Methven (1854–1917) – Scottish suffragist, suffragette, honorary secretary of Edinburgh National Society for Women’s Suffrage, joined WSPU 1906
- Alice Meynell (1847–1922) – editor, writer, and poet
- Harriet Taylor Mill (1807–1858) – philosopher and women’s rights advocate
- John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) – philosopher, political economist, and civil servant
- Hannah Mitchell (1872–1956) – activist
- Dora Montefiore (1851–1933) – activist and writer
- Ethel Moorhead (1869–1955) – painter
- Graham Moffat (1866–1951) – actor, director, playwright and spiritualist. Husband of Maggie Moffat and founder of the Men’s League for Women’s Suffrage
- Maggie Moffat (1873–1943) – British actor and suffragette, wife of Graham Moffat
- Ethel Moorhead (1869–1955) – suffragette and painter
- Anna Munro (1881–1962) – activist
- Eunice Murray (1878–1960) – only Scottish woman who stood for election when UK elections were opened to women in 1918
- Flora Murray (1869–1923) – medical pioneer and activist
- Frances Murray (1843–1919) – a suffragist raised in Scotland, an advocate of women’s education, a lecturer in Scottish music and a writer
- Sylvia Murray (1875–1955) – suffragette and author, the sister of suffragette Eunice Guthrie Murray
- Margaret Mylne (1806–1892) – Scottish suffragette and writer
- Mary Neal (1860–1944) – social worker and collector of English folk dances
- Alison Roberta Noble Neilans (1884–1942) – activist, member of the executive committee of the Women’s Freedom League
- Margaret Nevinson (1858–1932) – JP, Poor Law guardian, playwright, member of the Church League for Women’s Suffrage
- Jessie Newbery (1864–1948) – artist and suffragist
- Elizabeth Pease Nicholl (1807–1897) – abolitionist, anti-segregationist, suffragist, chartist and anti-vivisectionist
- Helen Ogston – suffragette
- Ada Nield Chew (1870–1945) – organiser
- Florence Nightingale (1820–1910) – celebrated social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing
- Emily Rosaline Orme (1835–1915) – a member of the Edinburgh National Society for Women’s Suffrage
- Elizabeth Margaret Pace (1866–1957) – Scottish doctor, suffragist and advocate for women’s health and women’s rights
- Adela Pankhurst (1885–1961) – political organiser, co-founder of the Communist Party of Australia and the Australia First Movement
- Christabel Pankhurst (1880–1958) – co-founder and leader of the WSPU
- Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928) – the founder and the leader of the British Suffragette Movement
- Sylvia Pankhurst (1882–1960) – campaigner and anti-fascism activist
- Frances Mary “Fanny” Parker OBE (1875–1924) – New Zealand-born suffragette prominent in the militant wing of the Scottish women’s suffrage movement and repeatedly imprisoned for her actions
- Grace Paterson (1843–1925) – school board member, temperance activist, suffragist, and founder of the Glasgow School of Cookery
- Isabella Bream Pearce (1859–1929) – Scottish socialist propagandist and suffrage campaigner
- Annie Seymour Pearson (born 1878) – work-based suffrage activist who ran a safe house for suffragettes evading police
- Edith Pechey (1845–1908) – campaigner for women’s rights, involved in a range of social causes
- Pleasance Pendred (1864–1948) – suffragette
- Emmeline Pethick Lawrence (1867–1954) – member Suffrage Society, secretary WSPU
- Leonora Philipps (1862–1915) – Liberal suffragist, president of Welsh Union of Women’s Liberal Associations and co-founder of the Pioneer Club
- Caroline Phillips (1874–1956) – feminist, suffragette and journalist
- Catherine Pine (1864–1941) – nurse, suffragette
- Isabella Potbury (1890–1965) – portrait painter, suffragette
- Clara Rackham (1875–1966) – magistrate, prison reformer, factory inspector, long-serving alderman and city councillor in Cambridge
- Jane Rae (1872–1959) – a political activist, suffragette, councillor and Justice of the peace
- Eleanor Rathbone (1872–1946) – campaigner for women’s rights
- Marion Kirkland Reid (1815–1902) – feminist and writer
- Mary Reid (1880–1921) – Scottish trades unionist
- Margaret Mackworth, 2nd Viscountess Rhondda (1883–1955) – WSPU member, journalist, businesswoman, founder of the feminist periodical Time and Tide
- Mary Richardson (1882–1961) – Canadian suffragette, arsonist, head of the women’s section of the British Union of Fascists
- Edith Rigby (1872–1948) – founder of St. Peter’s School, a prominent activist
- Margaret Robertson (1892–1967) – campaigner; organiser of the Election Fighting Fund
- Elizabeth Robins (1862–1952) – Ibsen actress, playwright, public speaker, novelist
- Annot Robinson (1874–1925) – née Wilkie, nicknamed Annie, pacifist and suffragette
- Rona Robinson (1881–1973) – suffragette and in 1905 the first woman in the UK to gain a first-class degree in chemistry
- Esther Roper (1868–1938) – social justice campaigner
- Arnold Stephenson Rowntree (1872–1951) – MP, philanthropist, and suffragist
- Lolita Roy – believed to have been an important organiser of the Women’s Coronation Procession (a suffrage march in London) in 1911 and marched as part of it with either her sisters or her daughters
- Agnes Royden (1876–1956) – preacher
- Bertha Ryland (1882–1977) – militant suffragette
- Myra Sadd Brown (1872–1938) – a suffragette activist in the WSPU, imprisoned and force-fed
- Amy Sanderson (born c1875-6) – Scottish suffragette, imprisoned twice, executive member of WFL
- Margaret Sandhurst (1828–1892) – one of the first women elected to a city council in the UK
- Arabella Scott (1886–1980) – Scottish suffragette who endured five weeks of solitary confinement in Perth prison and was force-fed twice a day
- Evelyn Sharp (suffragist) (1869–1955) – journalist on The Manchester Guardian, short story writer, tax resister, founder of the United Suffragists
- Genie Sheppard (1863–1953) – a medical doctor and militant suffragette
- Alice Maud Shipley (1869–1951) – suffragist who went on hunger strike in Holloway Prison and was force-fed
- Frances Simson (1854–1938) – suffragist, campaigner for women’s higher education and one of the first of eight women graduates from the University of Edinburgh
- May Sinclair (1863-1946) – a member of the Woman Writers’ Suffrage League
- Sophia Duleep Singh (1876–1948) – had leading roles in the Women’s Tax Resistance League and the WSPU
- Margaret Skinnider (1892–1971)
- Ethel Smyth (1858–1944) – composer, writer
- Mary Anderson Snodgrass (1862–1945) – politician, suffragist and advocate for women’s rights, member of the Glasgow and West of Scotland Association for Women’s Suffrage
- Ethel Snowden (1881–1951) – socialist, human rights activist, feminist politician
- Daisy Solomon (1882–1978) – South African born, member of WSPU, sent as ‘human letter’ with Elspeth McClelland, daughter of Georgiana Solomon
- Georgiana Solomon (1844–1933) – Scottish member of the WSPU, South African temperance activist
- Mary Somerville (1780–1872) – science writer and polymath
- Emma Sproson (1867–1936)- women’s rights activist
- Emily Spender (1841–1922) – novelist and suffragette
- Lady Barbara Steel (1857–1943) – Scottish suffragist and tax resister
- Jessie Stephen – (1893–1979) – working-class suffragette and trade union activist
- Flora Stevenson (1839–1905) – Scottish social reformer with interest in education for poor or neglected children
- Louisa Stevenson (1835–1908) – Scottish campaigner for women’s university education, effective and well-organised nursing
- Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (1840–1929) – scholar, author, and campaigner for women’s rights
- Una Harriet Ella Stratford Duval (née Dugdale) (1879–1975) – suffragette and marriage reformer
- Lucy Deane Streatfeild (1865–1950) – civil servant, social worker, one of the first female factory inspectors in the UK
- Ann Swaine (1821–1883) – writer and advocate for women’s higher education
- Annie S. Swan (1859–1943) – journalist, novelist and story writer
- Helena Swanwick (1864–1939) – feminist, pacifist
- Jane Taylour (1827–1905) – suffragist and women’s movement campaigner
- Janie Terrero (1858–1944) – militant suffragette
- Dora Thewlis (1890–1976) – activist
- Agnes Thomson (born 1846) – Scottish suffragette, member of Edinburgh WSPU, missionary in India
- Elizabeth Thomson (born 1848) – Scottish suffragette, member of Edinburgh WSPU, hunger striker, missionary in India
- Elizabeth Thompson (1846–1933) – prominent painter
- Muriel Thompson (1875–1939) – World War I ambulance driver, racing driver (helped found the Brooklands Automobile Racing Club) and suffragist
- Violet Tillard (1874–1922) – nurse, pacifist, and supporter of conscientious objectors, relief worker
- Isabella Tod (1836–1896) – Scottish suffragist, women’s rights campaigner and unionist politician in Ireland
- Catherine Tolson (1890–1924) – suffragette
- Helen Tolson (1888–1955) – suffragette
- Florence Tunks (1891–1985) – suffragette
- Minnie Turner (1866–1948) – ran a guest house, the “Sea View”, in Brighton
- Marion Wallace Dunlop (1864–1942) – suffragette went on hunger strike after being arrested for militancy
- Olive Grace Walton (1886–1937) – suffragette
- Elizabeth (Bessie) Watson (1900–1992) – child suffragette and piper
- Mona Chalmers Watson (1872–1936) – physician and head of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps
- Harriet Shaw Weaver (1876–1961) – political activist, magazine editor
- Beatrice Webb (1858–1943) – sociologist, economist, socialist, labour historian, social reformer
- Vera Wentworth (1890–1957) – went to Holloway for the cause and was force-fed. She door-stepped and then assaulted the Prime Minister twice. She wrote “Three Months in Holloway”.
- Rebecca West (1892–1983) – author, journalist, literary critic, travel writer
- Olive Wharry (1886–1947) – artist, arsonist
- Eliza Wigham (1820–1899) – suffragist and abolitionist
- Jane Wigham (1801–1888) – suffragist and abolitionist
- Ellen Wilkinson (1891–1947) – politician, Member of Parliament, served as Minister of Education
- Gertrude Wilkinson (1851–1929) – a militant suffragette and member of the Women’s Social and Political Union
- Laetitia Withall (1881–1963) – poet, author and militant suffragette
- Celia Wray (1872–1954) – suffragette and architect
- I.A.R. Wylie (1885–1959) – Australian writer, suffragette in the UK, working on The Suffragette
- Alice Zimmern (1855–1939) – teacher, writer
Timeline of Women’s Suffrage
Women’s suffrage – the right of women to vote – has been achieved at various times in countries throughout the world. In many nations, women’s suffrage was granted before universal suffrage, so women and men from certain classes or races were still unable to vote. Some countries granted suffrage to both sexes at the same time. This timeline lists years when women’s suffrage was enacted. Some countries are listed more than once, as the right was extended to more women according to age, land ownership, etc. In many cases, the first voting took place in a subsequent year.
Some women in the Isle of Man (geographically part of the British Isles, but not part of the UK) gained the right to vote in 1881. New Zealand was the first self-governing country in the world in which all women had the right to vote in parliamentary elections; from 1893. However, women could not stand for election to Parliament until 1919, when three women stood (unsuccessfully).
The colony of South Australia allowed women to vote and stand for election in 1894. In Sweden, conditional women’s suffrage was granted during the age of liberty between 1718 and 1772, but it was not until 1919 that equality was achieved, where women’s votes were valued the same as men’s.
The Australian Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 enabled women to vote at federal elections and also permitted women to stand for election to the Australian Parliament, making the newly-federated country of Australia the first in the modern world to do so, although some states excluded indigenous Australians.
In 1906, the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, which later became the Republic of Finland, was the first country in the world to give all women and all men both the right to vote and the right to run for office. Finland was also the first country in Europe to give women the right to vote. The world’s first female members of Parliament were elected in Finland the following year.
In Europe, the last jurisdiction to grant women the right to vote was the Swiss canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden (AI) in 1991; AI is the smallest Swiss canton with circa 14,100 inhabitants in 1990. Women in Switzerland obtained the right to vote at the federal level in 1971, and at the local cantonal level between 1959 and 1972, except for Appenzell in 1989/1990, see Women’s suffrage in Switzerland. In Saudi Arabia, women were first allowed to vote in December 2015 in the municipal elections.
- 1832: The Great Reform Act excludes women from the electorate by defining voters as ‘male persons’.
- 1832: The first petition on women’s suffrage was presented to Parliament.
- 1867: First debate on women’s suffrage in Parliament, led by John Stuart Mill.
- 1884: Women campaign to be included in the Third Reform Act, without success.
- 1889: The Women’s Franchise League was formed aiming to win the vote for married women and single and widowed women.
- 1897: Formation of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), led by Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929), drawing together peaceful campaign groups under one banner.
- 1903: The Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) is founded in Manchester by Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928).
- 1905: Suffragette militancy begins.
- 1907: The Women’s Freedom League is formed after a break from the WSPU.
- 1908: Hunger striking by Marion Wallace-Dunlop adopted as a WSPU strategy.
- 1909: Force-feeding begins.
- 1910-1912: Parliament considers various ‘Conciliation Bills’ which would have given some women the vote, but none pass.
- 1911: The suffragette Emily Wilding Davison (1872-1913) hid in a cupboard in the House of Commons on census night.
- 1913: The Prisoners’ Temporary Discharge for Ill-Health Act, also known as ‘The Cat and Mouse Act’, is introduced, targeting suffragettes on hunger-strike.
- 1914: Britain declared war on Germany on 4th August. During the First World War years (1914-18), an estimated two million women replaced men in traditionally male jobs.
- 1916: A conference on electoral reform, chaired by the House of Commons Speaker, is set up and reported on in 1917. Limited women’s suffrage is recommended.
- 1918: The Representation of the People Act is passed on 6th February, giving women the vote provided they are aged over 30, and either they or their husband meet a property qualification.
- 1918: The Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act was passed on 21st November, allowing women to stand for Parliament.
- 1918: Women vote in a general election for the first time on 14th December, with 8.5 million women eligible to vote.
- 1928: The Equal Franchise Act is passed, giving women equal voting rights with men. All women aged over 21 could now vote in elections. Fifteen million women are eligible.
- 1929: On 30th May, women aged between 21 and 29 voted for the first time. This general election is sometimes referred to as the Flapper Election.
Screenshot from a video at: https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/london-life/how-women-got-the-vote-uk-suffragette-timeline-a3756811.html
No progress was made until after the First World War, a time when women had shown they were just as capable as men at working in traditional ‘male’ jobs for four years. On 6th February 1918, women were finally given the Vote, albeit only a restricted segment of women in society – those over 30, who had certain property rights.
The British Library has an abundance of information and resources for anyone interested in the movement by the brave suffragettes of Britain to get the right to vote. The British Library’s Digital Learning team welcomes over 10 million learners to their website every year. They provide free learning resources that allow audiences to access thousands of digitised treasures from the British Library’s collection and explore a wealth of subjects from children’s literature and coastal sounds to medieval history and sacred texts. For example, their Suffrage timeline tracks the first petition to the first female MP, and you can follow the key events during the campaign for female suffrage:
- 1832: August: Mary Smith from Yorkshire, petitions Henry Hunt MP that she and other spinsters should ‘have a voice in the election of Members [of Parliament]. On 3rd August 1832, this became the first women’s suffrage petition to be presented to Parliament.
- 1866: 7 June: John Stuart Mill MP presented the first mass women’s suffrage petition to the House of Commons. It contained over 1500 signatures.
- 1867: January: Manchester National Society for Women’s Suffrage (MNSWS) was formed, alongside many other societies in different citites across Britain. May: John Stuart Mill made an unsuccessful amendment to the Second Reform Bill, which would have granted suffrage to women property holders.
- 1868: April: On 15 April 1868, the MNSWS held the first-ever public meeting about women’s suffrage at the Manchester Free Trade Hall.
- 1870: December: The Married Women’s Property Act gave married women the right to have their own property and money.
- 1880: November: The Isle of Man granted female suffrage in an amendment to the Manx Election Act of 1875.
- 1894: December: The Local Government Act was passed, which allowed married and single women to vote in elections for county and borough councils.
- 1897: The National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) was formed, uniting 17 societies. Later led by Millicent Fawcett, the NUWSS favoured peaceful campaign methods such as petitions.
- 1902: Women textile workers from Northern England presented a petition to Parliament that contained 37,000 signatures demanding votes for women.
- 1903: October: The Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) was formed in Manchester at the home of Emmeline Pankhurst.
- 1905: The WSPU adopted the motto ‘Deeds not Words’, resulting in the start of militant action by the suffragettes.
- 1907: February: The NUWSS organised their first large procession, where 40 suffragist societies and over 3000 women marched from Hyde Park to Exeter Hall in the rain and mud. It later became known as the ‘Mud March’. 8 March: The Women’s Enfranchisement Bill (the ‘Dickinson Bill’) was introduced to Parliament for its second reading but was talked out. Dora Thewlis and 75 other suffragettes were arrested when the WSPU attempted to storm the Houses of Parliament. August: Qualification of Women Act was passed, allowing women to be elected onto borough and county councils and mayor. Autumn: one-in-five suffragettes left the WSPU to join the newly-formed Women’s Freedom League (WFL).
- 1908: April: Herbert Henry Asquith, an anti-suffragist Liberal MP, became Prime Minister. June: ‘Women’s Sunday’ demonstration was organised by the WSPU at Hyde Park, London. Attended by 250,000 people from around Britain, it was the largest-ever political rally in London. Ignored by Asquith, suffragettes turned to smash windows in Downing Street, using stones with written pleas tied to them and tied themselves to railings. July: The Women’s National Anti-Suffrage League (WASL) is formed by Mrs Humphrey Ward.
- 1909: July: Marion Wallace Dunlop became the first imprisoned suffragette to go on hunger strike. Later that year, prisons began force-feeding of inmates on hunger strike. October: The Women’s Tax Resistance League (WTRL) was formed, a direct action group that refused to pay taxes without political representation. Their founding slogan was ‘No vote, no tax’.
- 1910: August: The WASL merged with the Men’s National League for Opposing Women’s Suffrage. The League now has a total of 42,000 enrolled members. November: The Conciliation Bill, which would grant suffrage for one million women who owned property over the value of £10, was passed by the Commons but failed to become law. In retaliation, 300 suffragettes from the WSPU marched on Parliament, where they were met with police brutality, assault and arrests. This day later became known as ‘Black Friday’.
- 1911: Emily Wilding Davison avoided the census by hiding in a cupboard in the crypt at the House of Commons. June: On the eve of King George V’s coronation, around 40,000 women from 28 suffrage societies marched for female enfranchisement. November: Asquith announced a manhood suffrage bill, which is seen as a betrayal of the women’s suffrage campaign. In protest, the WSPU organised a mass window-smashing campaign through London. This heightened militancy continued into 1912 and spiralled to include arson attacks.
- 1912: March: The Parliamentary Franchise (Women) Bill was introduced and defeated by 222 votes to 208. The Labour Party became the first political party to include female suffrage in their manifesto – partly in reaction to the NUWSS’s ‘Election Fighting Fund’, which was set up to help organise the Labour campaign.
- 1913: April: The ‘Cat and Mouse’ Act is introduced (officially titled Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act). It allows authorities to temporarily release suffragettes on hunger strikes and then re-arrest them once they recuperated. June: Emily Wilding Davison is killed after she steps out in front of the King’s horse at Epsom Derby. A member of WSPU, she intended to disrupt the Derby for the suffrage cause, though her exact motives are unknown. Thousands attend her funeral. 18 June – 25 July: 50,000 people from around the UK took part in the NUWSS’s ‘Pilgrimage for Women’s Suffrage’, which concluded with a rally in Hyde Park. The NUWSS wanted to display the suffragists’ peaceful, law-abiding tactics. December: As part of her involvement with WTRL, Sophia Duleep Singh is taken to court over her refusal to pay taxes. The East London Federation of Suffragettes is expelled from the WSPU after Christabel Pankhurst claims they are too concerned with other causes – such as living and working conditions. The NUWSS reached 50,000 members; the WSPU has 5,000 members.
- 1914: May: The WSPU clash with police outside of the gates to Buckingham Palace, when Emmeline Pankhurst attempted to present a petition to King George V. July: The outbreak of World War One brought a suspension to the WSPU’s and NUWSS’s campaigns. Women were urged to support the war effort, and, during this period, nearly five million women remained in or entered into employment.
- 1916: Asquith made a declaration of allegiance to women’s enfranchisement. December: David Lloyd George, a Liberal MP, replaced Asquith as Prime Minister.
- 1918: February: The Representation of the People Bill is passed, allowing women over 30 and men over 21 to vote. Women had to be married to or be members of the Local Government Register. November: The Parliamentary Qualification of Women Act is passed, enabling women to stand as MPs.
- 1919: March: Millicent Fawcett retired as President of the NUWSS, when it became the National Union of Societies for Equal Citizenship. November: Nancy Astor took her seat in the Houses of Commons, as the first female MP for Britain.
- 1928: July: The Representation of the People Act entitled everyone over 21 to vote.
- 1929: May: Women over 21 voted in their first general election. There was no majority, but Ramsay MacDonald’s Labour party took over from the Conservatives.
Kate Parry Frye and her Diary
Katharine “Kate” Parry Frye (born Katherine Parry Collins) (9 January 1878 – 16 February 1959) was a British actress, a lifelong diarist and suffragist. She was born in North Kensington. Her father, Frederick Frye, was a businessperson and, in time, a member of Parliament. Katherine was born above one of her father’s Leverett & Frye grocer shops. By the time she was eight, she had started a diary which she would continue for the next 70 years. Her father’s achievements were recorded in Katherine’s diary.
In 1902 she attended an Acting Academy where she learnt about the stage. She had been trained by governesses, which she later realised was inadequate. She obtained work in the play Quality Street by JM Barrie, which was touring England and Ireland. She learnt how to fend for herself, how to speak to a crowd and that acting was a poorly paid profession. She joined the London Society for Women’s Suffrage and the Actresses’ Franchise League. The latter supplied artwork and posters that supported the suffrage causes using volunteer artists. Frye continued her diary and led a life of ease until 1911, when her family faced financial problems, and the following year their home and all its contents were auctioned. Katharine’s diary records that she blamed her father for their misfortune.
In 1911, she took a paid job with the New Constitutional Society for Women’s Suffrage as an organiser. She toured south-east England using her skills to find new recruits. She campaigned for George Lansbury when he resigned his seat in Parliament in 1912 to create a bi-election. He wanted to confirm that the voters really did want women to have the Vote. He lost by 700 votes. Frye’s diary reports on the funeral of Emily Wilding Davison funeral, who had given her life when she was trampled to death by a horse during a protest at the Derby.
In 1914, Frye was secretary of the New Constitutional Society for Women’s Suffrage and, with the outbreak of war, the charity redirected their efforts to helping women rather than campaigning. By 1915, her fiance was no longer an actor but a captain in the Royal Garrison Artillery and could afford to have a wife. They married in January.
In the 1930s, Frye returned briefly to acting and continued to maintain her diaries. She died in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire in 1959.
Frye’s diaries were discovered by a writer and book dealer, Elizabeth Crawford, who decided to edit rather than sell the diaries. She created a book from the part of Frye’s diaries that cover the period of 1911 to 1915.
You can watch and listen to a talk given in Parliament by suffrage historian Elizabeth Crawford on the women’s suffrage organiser Kate Parry Frye. Click HERE for the Podcast: ‘Campaigning for the Vote’, the diary of Kate Parry Frye.
Women get the Vote (at Last)
During 1916-1917, the House of Commons Speaker, James William Lowther, chaired a conference on electoral reform that recommended limited women’s suffrage. Remarkably, many men were hard done by as well as women – only 58% of the adult male population was eligible to vote before 1918.
An influential consideration, in addition to the suffrage movement and the growth of the Labour Party, was the fact that only men who had been resident in the country for 12 months before a general election were entitled to vote. It effectively disenfranchised many troops who had been serving overseas in the war. With a general election imminent, politicians were persuaded to extend the vote to all men and to some women at long last.
In 1918, the Representation of the People Act was passed. It allowed women aged over 30 who met a property qualification to vote. Although 8.5 million women met these criteria, it represented only about two-thirds of the total population of women in the UK. The same Act abolished property and other restrictions for men and extended the vote to virtually all men over 21. Additionally, men in the armed forces could vote from the age of 19. The electorate increased from eight to 21 million, but there was still a massive inequality between women and men. It was not until the Equal Franchise Act of 1928 that women over 21 could vote and finally achieve the same voting rights as men. This act increased the number of women eligible to vote to 15 million.
How the Suffragettes got their message across
Some of the ways the Suffragettes marketed themselves were covered in an interesting article that appeared in the Daily Telegraph shortly before the release of the film Suffragette in October 2015. Suffragette is the first feature film to be shot in the Houses of Parliament. The film was released in the UK by the French film company Pathé through its British distributor 20th Century Fox, with a limited release in North America by Focus Features. The film was directed by Sarah Gavron and written by Abi Morgan. The film stars Carey Mulligan, Helena Bonham Carter, Brendan Gleeson, Anne-Marie Duff, Ben Whishaw, and Meryl Streep.
A summary of what the daily Telegraph article covered is shown below:
In 1908, the honorary treasurer of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), Mrs Pethick Lawrence, chose a colour scheme to unify participants in a large demonstration in Hyde Park. In a few weeks, members throughout the nation knew the suffrage colours: purple for dignity, white for purity and green for hope. Statuettes, badges, scarves and trimmings were made available for anyone who wanted a memento of the movement. Using these simple colours meant everyone could wear a symbol of the suffrage movement, even if they didn’t go out and buy something made especially for the event, by wearing scarves and ribbons or flowers, and with men wearing the colours on ties and hatbands. More than 30,000 women attended the Hyde Park rally and somewhere between 250,000 and 500,000 watched as the demonstration went on.
Sylvia Pankhurst, the elder daughter of Emmeline, was a genius at marketing. She designed a Women’s Fair in 1909, which sold suffrage books and postcards, but also went a step further to feature mock prison cells (suffragette posters from the same year vividly depict the violence of being force-fed in prison). Statuettes, badges, scarves and trimmings were made available for anyone who wanted a memento of the movement, while they served refreshments from the first ice cream soda fountain sent to London by a wealthy American supporter. More savvy merchants steered their advertising to the growing market of suffrage supporters. Enoch Morgan’s Sons Company, which made Sapolio cake soap with their famously decorative labels, advertised to the suffragette at home. Pankhurst designed extensive tea sets distributed by the WSPU, manufactured by a Staffordshire firm and later remade in larger sizes.
Suffragettes and their supporters were so keen on jewellery that shops across the nation struggled to meet the demand for almost anything wearable in the colours purple, white and green. The variety and amount was considerable, from popular tin badges to bespoke high-end pieces set with amethysts, pearls and emeralds. A supporter of the WSPU, Stanley Mappin, owner of Mappin & Webb, printed a catalogue of suffragette jewellery for Christmas 1908. More affordable were glass beads woven on home looms and metal pins set with coloured glass or enamel. There were hatpins, necklaces, brooches, pendants, some in the “V” shape, while individual artists, such as Birmingham School of Art designers Arthur and Georgie Gaskin, and the famous enameler Ernestine Mills, made pieces for suffragettes too, some of which were made to be sold at fundraising events.
The WSPU sold the board game called Pank-A-Squith as an awareness- and money-raising exercise. With a board set out in a spiral, players lead a suffragette figure from home to Parliament, overcoming 50 different obstacles, including Prime Minister Herbert Asquith and the Liberal government. The obstacles in the game were very much like real life.
Sources, Excerpts and Further Reading
Picture Credit: “‘Suffragette’ film production team visit Parliament” by UK Parliament is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- Source: https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/help-with-your-research/research-guides/womens-suffrage/ ↑
- Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_suffrage_in_the_United_Kingdom ↑
- Source: Mostly from https://artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/votes-for-women-around-the-uk/IQJCkGuJYchqJw ↑
- Source: https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/electionsvoting/womenvote/ ↑
- Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_suffragists_and_suffragettes ↑
- Briscoe, Kim (2 November 2017). “Call for public’s help to piece together life of Norfolk suffragette Caprina Fahey” Eastern Daily Press. ↑
- Hoffman, Bella (19th October 1992). “Obituary: Victoria Lidiard”. The Independent. ↑
- Source: Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_women%27s_suffrage ↑
- Source: “Tynwald – Parliament of the Isle of Man – Home” at: www.tynwald.org.im ↑
- See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_suffrage_in_Switzerland↑
- Source: Gorney, Cynthia (12th December 2015). “In a Historic Election, Saudi Women Cast First-Ever Ballots”. National Geographic. ↑
- See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_women%27s_legal_rights_(other_than_voting) ↑
- At: https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/electionsvoting/womenvote/keydates/ ↑
- Source: https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/london-life/how-women-got-the-vote-uk-suffragette-timeline-a3756811.html ↑
- Article written by: British Library Learning, published 6th February 2018. The timeline is available from: https://www.bl.uk/votes-for-women/articles/womens-suffrage-timeline. The text in the article is available under the Creative Commons License. ↑
- ‘Imperial parliament of Great Britain and Ireland’, Morning Chronicle, (No. 19,638, 4 August 1832), p. 1. ↑
- ‘The Women’s Suffrage Question’, Morning Post (No. 29,438, 16 April 1868), p. 7. ↑
- M A Butler and J Templeton, ‘The Isle of Man and the First Votes for Women’, Women & Politics (4:2, 1984), pp. 33–47. ↑
- Source: J Marlow, ed., Suffragettes: The Fight for Votes for Women (London, 2000). ↑
- Source: Another ‘Suffragist Raid’, Morning Post (No. 42,065, 21 March 1907), p. 7 ↑
- Source: Jill Liddington, Rebel Girls, (London, 2006), p. 67. ↑
- Source: KevinGrant, ‘British Suffragettes and the Russian Method of Hunger Strike’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 53, no. 1 (2011), pp. 113–143. ↑
- Source: Paula Bartley, Votes for Women, 1860-1928 (Oxon, 2003), p. 85. ↑
- Source: ‘An Act to provide for the Temporary Discharge of Prisoners whose further detention in prison is undesirable on account of the condition of their health’, 1913 Cat and Mouse Act, Parliamentary Archives, HL/PO/PU/1/1913/3&4G5c4 (1913). ↑
- Source: Leslie Parker Hume, The National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies 1897-1914 (London, 1982), pp.198–99. ↑
- Source: Julia Bush, Women against the vote: Female anti-suffragism in Britain (Oxford, 2007), p. 3. ↑
- Source: Gail Braybon, Women workers in the First World War (Oxon, 2012). ↑
- In 1918 Constance Markiewicz stood for Sinn Fein and became the first woman elected to Westminster, but in line with Sinn Fein politics, declined to take the seat. ↑
- Source: “Campaigning for the Vote: Kate Frye And The Problem Of The Diarist’s Multiple Roles”. Woman and her Sphere. 7th May 2013.↑
- Elizabeth Crawford, ‘Frye , Katharine Parry (1878–1959)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2014. ↑
- Source: “Campaigning for the Vote: Kate Frye And The Problem Of The Diarist’s Multiple Roles”. Woman and her Sphere. 7th May 2013.↑
- Source: https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/electionsvoting/womenvote/overview/thevote/ © Crown Copyright duly acknowledged. ↑
- See: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/film/suffragette/first_modern_campaigners/ ↑