The French Revolution
Attribution: Eugène Delacroix, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
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This paper is about revolutions and how and why they happen. Revolutions are the same as riots, rebellions, and other forms of uprisings, right?
Wrong, they are not. Admittedly, they are all forms of collective actions taken by a group of people to protest or challenge the status quo, often in response to perceived grievances or injustices, but they are all different to each other:
- A riot is a violent outburst of anger and frustration that often involves the destruction of property, looting, and other forms of chaos. Riots are usually spontaneous and lack any clear leadership or organisation.
- A rebellion, on the other hand, is a more organised and sustained uprising aimed at challenging existing power structures. Rebellions often involve armed conflict and may be carried out by a group that seeks to overthrow the existing government or ruling class.
- Other forms of uprisings can include protests, strikes, boycotts, and civil disobedience. These are generally non-violent forms of collective action that seek to bring attention to a specific issue or challenge the status quo.
- A revolution, in contrast, is a more profound and transformative change in the political, economic, or social system of a society. Revolutions are typically larger in scale than rebellions or uprisings, and they often result in the overthrow of the existing government and the establishment of a new regime.
Revolutions have been a defining feature of human history and have been shaped by a range of factors.
Revolutionary movements often have a clear ideology and leadership, and they seek to fundamentally change the power relations and social structures of a society. While riots, rebellions, and uprisings can lead to changes in government or policy, they generally do not result in the kind of far-reaching transformation associated with a revolution.
Revolutions have been a recurring feature of human history, driven by various factors, including political, economic, and social grievances.
In this paper, I will explore the nature of revolutions, their causes and consequences, and their role in shaping societies. I will begin by examining different definitions of revolutions and the various ways they have been categorised and analysed by scholars. I will then delve into the causes of revolutions, looking at the economic, political, and social factors that drive people to seek radical change. I will also look at revolutions throughout history and provide a timeline. Finally, I will explore the aftermath of revolutions and how they shape the future of societies. I hope you enjoy it.
Categorising and Analysing Revolutions
A revolution can have several meanings, such as:
- The action of a celestial body going around in an orbit or elliptical course.
- The period made by the regular succession of a measure of time or by a sequential succession of similar events.
- A fundamental change in the way of thinking about or visualising something, as in a paradigm shift or a changeover in use or preference – especially in technology.
- A sudden, radical, or complete change – as in a fundamental change in political organisation in a country or state involving the overthrow or renunciation of one government or ruler and substituting another. Political revolutions seek to overthrow or transform the existing political system, often involving struggles for power and control, aiming to replace the ruling elite with a new political order that better represents the perceived interests of the masses. Examples of political revolutions include the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Russian Revolution.
This paper is concerned with the last meaning, shown above.
In addition to categorising revolutions by their motivating factors, scholars have also developed various theories about revolutions to help explain their causes and outcomes. These include modernisation theory, which posits that revolutions occur as a result of modernisation and industrialisation; resource mobilisation theory, which emphasises the importance of collective action and organisation in driving revolutionary change; and political process theory, which focuses on the role of political institutions and structures in shaping revolutionary movements.
However, categorising and analysing revolutions is not without its challenges. Revolutions are complex and multifaceted phenomena, and they often involve a range of different factors and actors. Moreover, the outcomes of revolutions are often unpredictable and can vary widely depending on the context and historical moment. Nonetheless, continued study and analysis of revolutionary movements are crucial to our understanding of social change and the future of global politics.
It is important to mention that there are different theories of revolution, particularly those that focus on political revolutions. For example, the Marxist theory of revolution suggests that revolutions occur due to class struggle, with the working class seeking to overthrow the ruling class and establish a new political order. Additionally, the theory of democratic revolutions proposes that revolutions occur due to a desire for greater political freedoms and democratic governance.
The Age of Revolution
The Age of Revolution is a period from the late-18th to the mid-19th centuries during which several significant revolutionary movements occurred in most of Europe and the Americas. The period is noted for the change from absolutist monarchies to representative governments with a written constitution and the creation of nation-states.
Influenced by the wake-up call of new ideas of the Enlightenment, the American Revolution (1765–1783) is usually considered the starting point of the Age of Revolution. In turn, it inspired the French Revolution of 1789, rapidly spreading to the rest of Europe through its wars. In 1799, Napoleon took power in France and continued the French Revolutionary Wars by conquering most of continental Europe. Although Napoleon imposed on his conquests several modern concepts, such as equality before the law, or a civil code, his rigorous military occupation triggered national rebellions, notably in Spain and Germany.
After Napoleon’s defeat, the great European powers forged the Holy Alliance at the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15 to prevent future revolutions. It also restored the previous monarchies. Nevertheless, Spain was considerably weakened by the Napoleonic Wars and could not control its American colonies, almost all of which proclaimed their independence between 1810 and 1820. Revolution then spread back to southern Europe in 1820, with uprisings in Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Greece. Continental Europe was shaken by two similar revolutionary waves in 1830 and 1848, also called the Spring of Nations. The democratic demands of the revolutionaries often merged with independence or national unification movements, such as in Italy, Germany, Poland, Hungary, etc. The violent repression of the Spring of Nations marked the end of the era.
Revolutions Throughout History
Revolutions have been a recurring feature of human history, with numerous examples of revolutionary movements occurring across different societies and time periods. From the ancient world to modern times, revolutions have played a significant role in shaping the course of human societies and politics.
Overview of Revolutions
In ancient times, revolutions often took the form of uprisings against despotic rulers and monarchies. The ancient Greek and Roman worlds saw numerous examples of popular uprisings against tyrannical rulers, such as the Athenian uprising against the 30 Tyrants in 404 BC and the Roman Republic’s overthrow of the last Roman King, Tarquin the Proud, in 509 BC.
Moving forward to the modern era:
- The English Revolution of the 17th century marked a turning point in European history, leading to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. Political and religious tensions sparked the English Revolution, and it resulted in the execution of King Charles I and the establishment of a republic under Oliver Cromwell’s (and, on his death, his son’s) leadership until the return of King Charles II and the restoration of the monarchy.
- The Glorious Revolution is the term first used in 1689 to summarise events leading to the deposition of James II and VII of England, Ireland and Scotland in November 1688 and his replacement by his daughter Mary II and her husband and James’s nephew William III of Orange, the de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic. It has been described as the last successful invasion of England and an internal coup.
- The American Revolution of 1776 was fought over issues of taxation and representation, and it led to the establishment of the United States as an independent constitutional democracy based on the principles of individual rights and popular sovereignty. It was an ideological and political revolution in British America. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies formed independent states that defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War, thereby gaining independence from the British Crown and establishing the United States as the first nation-state founded on Enlightenment
principles of liberal democracy.
In 1973, the US Post Office issued a set of four stamps, together making one scene of the Boston Tea Party.
Attribution: Bureau of Engraving and Printing for United States Post Office Department, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
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- The French Revolution of 1789 marked a dramatic shift in European politics, as it overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and established a republic based on the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity, driven by demands for political and social reform. It occurred in a period of radical political and societal change in France that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended with the formation of the French Consulate in November 1799. Many of its ideas are considered fundamental principles of liberal democracy, while the values and institutions it created remain central to French political discourse.
- The Haitian Revolution was a major slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) from 1791 to 1804. The revolution was driven by various factors, including racial and cultural tensions, economic exploitation, and political oppression. The enslaved people and free people of colour who led the revolt were inspired by Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality, as well as the example of the American and French revolutions. The revolution ultimately led to the establishment of the world’s first black republic and is considered a landmark event in the history of the Caribbean and the African diaspora. The Haitian Revolution had a significant impact on global politics, contributing to the spread of anti-slavery sentiment and challenging the prevailing belief in the innate inferiority of black people.
- The Greek Revolution (or the Greek Revolution) of 1821, also known as the Greek War of Independence, was a successful war of independence by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1829. In 1826, the Greeks were assisted by the British Empire, the Kingdom of France, and the Russian Empire, while the Ottomans were aided by their North African vassals, particularly the eyalet of Egypt. The war led to the formation of modern Greece, which would be expanded to include its modern borders in later years. The revolution is celebrated by Greeks worldwide as their independence day on 25th March every year.
- The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a pivotal event that led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, one of the world’s largest communist states. It was driven by the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, and resulted in the establishment of the world’s first socialist state. It took place in the former Russian Empire during the First World War. This period saw Russia abolish its monarchy and adopt a socialist form of government following two successive revolutions and a bloody civil war. The Russian Revolution can also be seen as the precursor for the other European revolutions that occurred during or in the aftermath of the First World War, such as the German Revolution of 1918. The Russian Revolution was inaugurated with the February Revolution in 1917. This first revolt focused in and around what was the then-capital Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg).
Vladimir Lenin on a Tribune 1 May 1920.
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- The Siamese Revolution of 1932 (or Siamese coup d’état of 1932) was a coup d’état by Khana Ratsadon (the People’s Party) in Siam on 24th June 1932. It ended Siam’s centuries-long absolute monarchy rule under the Chakri dynasty and resulted in a bloodless transition of Siam into a constitutional monarchy, the introduction of democracy and the first constitution, and the creation of the National Assembly. Dissatisfaction caused by the economic crisis, the lack of a competent government and the rise of western-educated commoners fueled the revolution. King Prajadhipok remained on the throne and compromised with Khana Ratsadon. Two coups occurred a year later, in April and June, amid infighting within the government over Pridi Banomyong‘s socialist economic plan and a rebellion of the royalists.
- The Chinese Communist Revolution of 1949 led to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China and the beginning of Mao Zedong’s regime. The revolution was driven by social and political issues in China and culminated in the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. For the preceding century, China had faced escalating social, economic, and political problems due to Western imperialism and the decline of the Qing Dynasty. Cyclical famines and an oppressive landlord system kept the large mass of rural peasantry poor and politically disenfranchised. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was formed in 1921 by young urban intellectuals inspired by European socialist ideas and the success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. The CCP originally allied itself with the nationalist Kuomintang party against the warlords and foreign imperialism, but the Shanghai Massacre of Communists ordered by KMT leader Chiang Kai-shek in 1927 forced them into the Chinese Civil War.
- The Cuban Revolution of 1959 saw Fidel Castro and his revolutionaries overthrow the US-backed regime of Fulgencio Batista, leading to the establishment of a socialist state in Cuba.
- The Iranian Revolution of 1979 was driven by popular protests against the autocratic rule of the Shah, and it resulted in the establishment of an Islamic Republic.
- The Arab Spring was a series of popular uprisings that swept North Africa and the Middle East in 2010. The movement was sparked by widespread frustration with corrupt and authoritarian regimes and demands for greater political freedoms, economic opportunities, and democratic governance. Although widespread, the protests were largely peaceful, but in some cases, they turned violent as security forces cracked down on demonstrators. The Arab Spring ultimately led to the overthrow of several long-standing dictators, including Tunisia’s Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak, and Libya’s Muammar Gaddafi. While the outcomes of the Arab Spring have been mixed, with some countries undergoing democratic transitions while others have descended into chaos or authoritarian rule, the movement marked a major turning point in the political landscape of the region.
Comparison and Contrast of Different Revolutions
Despite their different historical contexts and specific causes, revolutions share certain common features regarding their goals, methods, and outcomes. Revolutions are often sparked by deep-seated grievances and demands for political, social, and economic change. They often involve the mobilisation of large segments of the population, and they may be characterised by violent conflict and upheaval.
However, revolutions can also have different outcomes, depending on the specific historical context and the goals of the revolutionary movement. Some revolutions have led to the establishment of new political systems and redrawing of social and economic structures, while others have failed to achieve their aims, leading to further political instability and social unrest. Additionally, some revolutions have had lasting impacts on the societies in which they occurred, while others have had relatively minor effects in the long term.
For example, the American Revolution established the United States as a major world power, and its principles of democracy, individual rights, and popular sovereignty have influenced political movements around the world. The French Revolution also had a significant impact on European politics, and its principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity have remained influential in modern political discourse.
In stark contrast, the Chinese Revolution of 1949 and the Iranian Revolution of 1979 led to the establishment of authoritarian regimes that have faced significant criticism for their human rights records and suppression of political dissent. Similarly, the Russian Revolution of 1917 ultimately led to the creation of a totalitarian state under Joseph Stalin, characterised by widespread repression and violence.
While each revolution is unique in its historical context and specific causes, they all share the goal of transforming the existing political and social order. Understanding the causes and outcomes of revolutions is crucial to our understanding of social change and the future of global politics. Despite the different outcomes, all of the revolutions have had a significant impact on the societies in which they occurred, shaping the course of history and influencing the development of political and social movements across the world.
Causes of Revolutions
Revolutionary movements are driven by a range of factors that reflect a given society’s underlying social, economic, and political conditions. While each revolution is unique in its specific causes and historical context, scholars have identified several broad categories of factors that contribute to the emergence of revolutionary movements:
- Economic Factors: Economic factors are often a major driver of revolutionary movements. Poverty, inequality, and economic crises can create widespread dissatisfaction and frustration among the masses, leading to demands for radical change. For example, the French Revolution was largely driven by economic grievances, with high taxes and food shortages sparking popular discontent and calls for political reform.
- Political Factors: Political factors also play a key role in driving revolutionary movements. Corruption, authoritarianism, and lack of representation can create widespread dissatisfaction and distrust of government, leading to demands for radical change. The Arab Spring, for example, was sparked by widespread discontent with corrupt and authoritarian regimes, leading to popular uprisings across the region demanding greater political freedoms and democratic governance.
- Social Factors: Social factors such as ethnic and religious tensions, demographic changes, and cultural values and beliefs can also contribute to the emergence of revolutionary movements. For example, the Haitian Revolution was partly driven by racial and cultural tensions, with slaves and free people of colour banding together to overthrow their white oppressors and establish a new social order.
- Interplay Between Factors: The causes of revolutions are often complex and multifaceted, with the interplay between different factors contributing to their emergence. For example, economic crises can exacerbate existing political and social tensions, leading to calls for radical change. Similarly, political and social factors can intersect to create a sense of alienation and marginalisation among certain groups, leading to demands for greater representation and political power.
- Other Factors: Other factors contributing to the emergence of revolutionary movements include external forces such as foreign intervention or economic sanctions, environmental factors such as droughts or natural disasters, and technological innovations that disrupt traditional power structures and social norms.
The causes of revolutionary movements are complex and multifaceted, reflecting the underlying social, economic, and political conditions in a given society. While each revolution is unique in its specific causes and historical context, a better understanding of these underlying factors can help us to understand the dynamics of social and political change and to anticipate and address potential sources of conflict and unrest in the future.
The Aftermath of Revolutions
Revolutionary movements can potentially transform societies and reshape the political landscape of entire regions or even the world. However, the aftermath of revolutions is often marked by a range of challenges and uncertainties that can complicate the process of political, economic, and social transformation:
- Challenges of Post-Revolutionary Societies: Post-revolutionary societies face various challenges, including political instability, economic reconstruction, and social reform. In many cases, the collapse of the existing political order can lead to a power vacuum or prolonged periods of instability as rival factions compete for control and new institutions are established. Economic reconstruction is also a major challenge, as post-revolutionary societies often face significant economic disruptions and resource constraints that can hamper growth and development. Social reform is another key challenge, as revolutionary movements often seek to challenge deeply entrenched social hierarchies and address long-standing injustices and inequalities.
- The Role of External Forces: External forces, such as foreign intervention and global power dynamics, can also play a major role in shaping post-revolutionary outcomes. Foreign intervention can either help or hinder the process of political, economic, and social transformation, depending on the motives and interests of the intervening parties. Global power dynamics, such as the competition between superpowers or the spread of ideologies such as democracy or communism, can also shape the trajectory of post-revolutionary societies, either by bolstering or undermining the legitimacy of new political orders.
- Long-Term Impact of Revolutions: The long-term impact of revolutions on society can be profound, extending well beyond the initial period of political, economic, and social transformation. Revolutions can lead to the emergence of new cultural, social, and political norms and institutions and can have a lasting impact on the collective memory and identity of societies as well as expectations and aspirations. For example, the French Revolution ushered in a new era of democratic governance and individual rights, while the Russian Revolution led to the establishment of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism around the world.
Revolutions are a powerful force for change in human societies. While they can be messy and chaotic, and their outcomes are often uncertain, they have the potential to transform the lives of millions of people and create new possibilities for social, economic, and political development. Revolutions have been shaped by a complex interplay of factors, including ideology, economics, technology, and culture, and they have often been driven by a desire for justice, freedom, and equality.
An unstable social equilibrium can arise from a combination of factors, including economic or fiscal strain, alienation and opposition among the elites, widespread popular anger at injustice, a persuasive shared narrative of resistance, and favourable international relations.
When these elements converge, they can create conditions that make revolutionary movements more likely to emerge as people become increasingly dissatisfied with the existing social and political order and look for ways to bring about fundamental change. The presence of these factors does not guarantee the emergence of a revolutionary movement, but it can create a fertile ground for the development of such movements.
In this paper, I have explored the nature of revolutions and the factors driving people to seek radical change. I hope I have made it clear that revolutions are distinct from other forms of uprisings, such as riots and rebellions, and that they aim to fundamentally transform the political, economic, or social systems of a society. I have also looked at several key revolutions throughout history, including the English, American, French, Russian, Chinese, Cuban, Iranian, and Haitian revolutions, and examined their causes, outcomes, and impact on society.
Despite their different historical contexts and specific causes, revolutions share certain common features regarding their goals, methods, and outcomes. They are often driven by deep-seated grievances and demands for political, social, and economic change, and they often involve the mobilisation of large segments of the population. However, revolutions can also have different outcomes, depending on the specific historical context and the goals of the revolutionary movement. Some revolutions have led to the establishment of new political systems and redrawing of social and economic structures, while others have failed to achieve their aims, leading to further political instability and social unrest.
The aftermath of revolutions is often marked by various challenges and uncertainties, including political instability, economic reconstruction, and social reform. Post-revolutionary societies face significant challenges as they seek to establish new political, economic, and social orders. External forces, such as foreign intervention and global power dynamics, can also play a major role in shaping post-revolutionary outcomes. Additionally, the long-term impact of revolutions on society can be profound, shaping the course of history and influencing the development of political and social movements across the world.
In conclusion, revolutions have been a defining feature of human history, driven by various factors, including political, economic, and social grievances. While each revolution is unique in its specific causes and historical context, understanding the causes and outcomes of revolutions is crucial to our understanding of social change and the future of global politics. Looking to the future, it is clear that revolutions will continue to play a vital role in shaping the course of world events. From the ongoing struggles for democracy and human rights in authoritarian states to the challenges of climate change and economic inequality, the need for transformative change has never been greater. By understanding the nature of revolutions and the forces that drive them, we can better prepare ourselves for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead and work towards a more just and equitable future for all.
Sources and Further Reading
Books and Academic Papers:
- What causes revolutions? by Jack A. Goldstone, published by Oxford Academic (December 2013), at: https://doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780199858507.003.0002 Abstract at: https://academic.oup.com/book/28409/chapter-abstract/228830631
- Causes of Political Revolution, by Alazar Gebil, Thesis, Eastern Illinois University, at: https://thekeep.eiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=3290&context=theses
- The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848, Eric Hobsbawm, published by Penguin(1987), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Age-Revolution-Europe-1789-1848/dp/0349104840/
- Big Questions In History, Paperback, by Harriet Swain, published by Vintage (2006), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Big-Questions-History-Harriet-Swain/dp/0099468468
- Revolution: The History of England Volume IV (The History of England, 4), Paperback, by Peter Ackroyd, published by Pan (2017), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Revolution-History-England-IV/dp/1509811478/
- World Revolution, 1917–1936: The Rise and Fall of the Communist International (The C. L. R. James Archives), Hardcover – Illustrated, by C. L. R. James (Author), Christian Høgsbjerg (Editor), published by Duke University Press Books (2017), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/World-Revolution-1917-1936-Communist-International/dp/130021841X/
- A Bitter Revolution: China’s Struggle with the Modern World (Making of the Modern World), Paperback – Illustrated, by Rana Mitter (Author), published by Oxford University Press (2005), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Bitter-Revolution-Chinas-Struggle-Modern/dp/019280605X/
- The French Revolution: Crash Course World History #29, by CrashCourse, at: https://youtu.be/lTTvKwCylFY
- The American Revolution: Crash Course US History #2, by CrashCourse, at: https://youtu.be/HlUiSBXQHCw
- What was the Cuban Revolution, at: https://youtu.be/al0qY4dBUgo
- The Arab Spring, at: https://youtu.be/Fgcd5ZcxDys
- The Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia: Lessons for democracy of 1989, at: https://youtu.be/opIOZ1r-PqA
- Post-Revolution Tunisia Attempts Painful Transition to Democracy, at: https://youtu.be/B_hqr4r462c
- The Russian Revolution (1917), at: https://youtu.be/KOK1TMSyKcM
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Revolutionaries attacking the Tsarist police in the early days of the February (Russian) Revolution.
Attribution: Unknown Author
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End Notes and Explanations
- Source: Compiled from research using information at the sources stated throughout the text, together with information provided by machine-generated artificial intelligence at: bing.com [chat] and https://chat.openai.com ↑
- Source: Matson, Cathy (July 2005). “The Atlantic Economy in an Era of Revolutions: An Introduction”. William and Mary Quarterly. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_Revolution ↑
- See more at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_Revolution ↑
- Explanation: The Thirty Tyrants were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. Upon Lysander‘s request, the Thirty were elected as a tyrannical government, not just as a legislative committee. Although they maintained power for only a brief eight months, their reign resulted in the killing of 5% of the Athenian population, the confiscation of citizens’ property and the exile of other democratic supporters. They became known as the “Thirty Tyrants” because of their cruel and oppressive tactics. The two leading members were Critias and Theramenes. The Thirty Tyrants’ brief reign was marred by violence and corruption. Historians have argued that the violence and brutality the Thirty carried out in Athens was necessary to transition Athens from a democracy to an oligarchy. However, the more violent the Thirty’s regime became, the more opposition they faced. The increased level of opposition ultimately led to the overthrow of the Thirty’s regime by Thrasybulus’ rebel forces. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirty_Tyrants ↑
- Explanation: Tarquin the Proud, also known as Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, was the last king of Rome before the Roman Republic was established in 509 BC. He was the son of Tarquin the Elder, who had been elected as king by the Senate after the death of Servius Tullius, the previous king. Tarquin the Proud was known for his cruelty and arrogance. He is said to have killed or exiled many of his opponents and confiscated their property. He also built many public works, including the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill and the Cloaca Maxima, a sewer system that helped to drain the marshes around Rome.The people of Rome eventually overthrew Tarquin the Proud and established the Roman Republic, which was governed by two consuls instead of a single king. Tarquin and his family were banished from Rome, and the Roman Republic lasted for almost five centuries, until it was replaced by the Roman Empire under Julius Caesar. See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Tarquinius_Superbus ↑
- Sources: (1) Black 2016, p. 143, (2) Padfield 1999, and (3) Schwoerer 2004, p. 3. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glorious_Revolution ↑
- See more at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolution ↑
- Source: Fehér, Ferenc (1990). The French Revolution and the Birth of Modernity (1992 ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520071209. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution ↑
- Source: “War of Greek Independence | History, Facts, & Combatants”. See also: Cartledge, Yianni; Varnava, Andrekos, eds. (2022). Yianni Cartledge & Andrekos Varnava (eds.): New Perspectives on the Greek War of Independence: Myths, Realities, Legacies and Reflections, Palgrave Macmillan/Springer. ISBN 978-3031108488. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_War_of_Independence ↑
- Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_War_of_Independence ↑
- Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution ↑
- Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siamese_revolution_of_1932 ↑
- Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Communist_Revolution ↑