The Martin Pollins Blog

History, economics, business, politics…and Sussex

Before the Incas – Chan Chan and the  Chimú Kingdom of  Peru


Chan Chan, also known as Ciudadelas del Chimor, was a pre-Columbian city located in the Moche Valley on the northern coast of present-day Peru. It was the capital of the Chimú civilisation, which thrived from approximately the 9th to the 15th century AD.

The construction of Chan Chan began around the 9th century AD and continued over several centuries. It peaked by the 14th century when it was one of the largest cities in the world, covering an area of approximately 20 square kilometres (7.7 square miles) and with a population of tens of thousands of people.

The city was organised into ten walled citadels known as “palaces.” Each palace was home to a different Chimú ruler and their respective elite class. The most prominent and well-preserved palace is the Tschudi Complex, which consists of ceremonial plazas, temples, residential areas, and administrative buildings.

Caption: Walled compounds pictured above are made out of adobe brick and finished off with mud. Often the chimú would draw animals or other things into the mud before it dried.
Attribution: Jim Williams, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO <;, via Wikimedia Commons

Page URL:

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO license.

Chan Chan was primarily a political and administrative centre. The Chimú rulers governed their vast empire from this city, which also served as a hub for trade and craftsmanship. The Chimú people were skilled artisans known for their intricate metalwork, textiles, and ceramics. In the late 15th century, the Inca Empire, led by Emperor Tupac Inca Yupanqui, conquered the Chimú civilisation, including Chan Chan. The Incas incorporated some aspects of Chimú culture into their own, but the city gradually declined in significance.

Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in the 16th century, Chan Chan was largely abandoned and fell into ruin. The city was gradually reclaimed by the surrounding desert, and its adobe[2] structures were eroded over time. Spanish chroniclers in the 16th century mentioned the ruins of Chan Chan, but the site was not extensively studied until the 20th century.

Archaeological excavations at Chan Chan began in the 1960s, uncovering the impressive architectural features and artwork of the Chimú civilisation. The site was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1986 due to its cultural significance.

Caption: Adobe detail at Chan Chan.
Attribution: Kevstan, CC BY-SA 3.0 <;, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL:

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

What makes Chan Chan particularly special is its unique architectural style. The city’s walls were decorated with intricate reliefs depicting marine and supernatural motifs, such as fish, birds, waves, and gods. The craftsmanship displayed in the mud-brick construction and the detailed decorations reflect the advanced engineering and artistic skills of the Chimú people.

Today, Chan Chan remains an important archaeological site and a major tourist attraction in Peru. Efforts are being made to preserve and protect fragile adobe structures from further deterioration caused by climate and human activity. The site provides valuable insights into the history, culture, and urban planning of the Chimú civilisation, making it an intriguing subject for further research and exploration.

The Chimú Civilisation
The people of Chan Chan were part of the Chimú civilisation (succeeding the Moche culture), the largest empire in the Andean Region before the arrival of the Incas and the Conquistadors[3]. Chan Chan served as the capital and political centre of the Chimú Empire. The Chimú civilisation, also known as the Kingdom of Chimor, was a pre-Columbian civilisation that flourished on the northern coast of Peru from approximately the 9th to the 15th century AD.

Chan Chan was the largest and most important city within the Chimú Empire. It was a thriving urban centre with extensive architectural complexes, administrative structures, and residential areas. The rulers of the Chimú civilisation governed their empire from Chan Chan, and it played a crucial role in the economic, political, and cultural affairs of the Chimú society. The city served as a testament to the political and artistic achievements of the Chimú people during their heyday.

While Chan Chan was a significant part of the Chimú civilisation, the Chimú Empire extended far beyond the city itself. The empire encompassed a vast territory along the Peruvian coast, incorporating various regions and settlements under Chimú rule.

Child and Llama Sacrifices
The discovery of child and llama sacrifices associated with the Chimú civilisation[4] has provided valuable insights into this ancient culture’s religious and ritual practices. The sacrificial events are believed to have occurred during the 15th century when the civilisation was most prominent. The remains of over 300 children and 600 juvenile llamas were found along the northern coast of Peru. The Chimú was one of the largest pre-Columbian empires in the Andean region before the Inca Empire and the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors.

Ever since they were found, questions have been raised about the purpose and methods of the sacrifices. The sacrifices were not isolated incidents but rather part of a broader sacrificial tradition within their religious and ceremonial practices. The precise reasons behind these sacrifices are still a subject of ongoing research and investigation, although it is known that ritual sacrifices were an integral part of many ancient cultures and were often performed for religious or ideological purposes. Researchers believe the children were sacrificed as part of a ritual against the floods caused by El Niño on the Peruvian coastline as an offering to the gods, an assumption further supported by the layer of mud found during excavations, probably following severe rain and flooding.[5]

The archaeological sites associated with the Chimú civilisation have revealed evidence of mass sacrifices, where numerous individuals, predominantly children and llamas, were ritually killed and buried together. These mass sacrifices suggest a deliberate and organised ritual activity. Children, often ranging from infants to teenagers, were chosen as sacrificial victims. They were selected from various social backgrounds and may have been offerings to appease or communicate with deities or ancestral spirits. Llamas, domesticated animals highly valued by Andean cultures for their wool, meat, and religious significance, were also sacrificial victims. Llamas were ritually slaughtered and buried alongside the children, often in significant numbers.

The child and llama sacrifices were likely carried out within specific religious and ceremonial contexts, possibly tied to important events, religious festivals, or transitions of power within the Chimú society and probably had symbolic meanings and served religious and cosmological purposes. They may have been intended to ensure the well-being of the community, secure agricultural fertility, establish social order, or communicate with the spiritual realm. The execution of these mass sacrifices, particularly the sacrifice of children, suggests the centralisation of power and control within the Chimú society and likely involved the participation and endorsement of the ruling elite, who used these rituals to reinforce their authority and establish connections with supernatural forces.

The discovery of the child and llama sacrifices associated with the Chimú civilisation was made by archaeologists and researchers who have conducted excavations and investigations at various archaeological sites in the region.

The first significant evidence of mass child sacrifices in the region was found in the early 1980s at the archaeological site of Huanchaco, near Trujillo (Peru’s third largest city) in northern Peru. One notable archaeological team that has contributed significantly to studying child and llama sacrifices in the Chimú civilisation was led by Dr Gabriel Prieto and Dr John Verano. They have conducted extensive research and excavations at sites such as Huanchaco and Las Lomas de Huanchaco, unearthing numerous sacrificial burials and providing valuable insights into the ritual practices of the Chimú culture.

Since then, various archaeological teams, including international collaborations, have continued to explore and investigate the child and llama sacrifices within the context of the Chimú civilisation. Their efforts have led to a better understanding of these sacrificial practices and their significance within the broader cultural and religious framework of the Chimú people.


Caption: Tschudi is was a place of worship. The Chimú mainly worshipped the ocean and sea, so figures and designs like these were present in many places around the city.
Attribution: Enrique Jara, CC BY-SA 4.0 <;, via Wikimedia Commons

Page URL:

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

The name “Chan Chan” derives from the Chimú civilisation’s language, which was the culture associated with the ancient city. The exact etymology and meaning of “Chan Chan” have been subject to interpretation and debate among scholars. One commonly suggested explanation is that “Chan Chan” means “Sun Sun” or “Resplendent Sun” in the Chimú language. This interpretation relates to the significance of the Sun as a prominent deity in Andean cultures and the possible association of the city with solar worship. The repetition of the word “chan” could emphasise or indicate greatness.

As successors to the Moche civilization, the Chimú spoke Yunca (Yunga, or Moche), a now-extinct language, but they had no writing system[6]. It is important to note that our understanding of the Chimú language is limited, and only a few fragments have ever been deciphered. The Chan Chan civilians supposedly spoke the language “Mochica”. Once the Inca gained control, that language was completely wiped out and is now an extinct language. There’s very little documented about the Mochica language, and only a few words have been deciphered.[7]

Despite uncertainties regarding the etymology, “Chan Chan” has become the widely recognised and accepted name for the ancient city, referring to its historical and cultural significance as the capital of the Chimú civilisation.

Chan Chan City and its Architecture

Unesco described the city:
“The monumental zone of around six square kilometres in the centre of the once twenty square kilometre city comprises nine large rectangular complexes (‘citadels’ or ‘palaces’) delineated by high thick earthen walls. Within these units, buildings, including temples, dwellings, and storehouses are arranged around open spaces, together with reservoirs and funeral platforms. The earthen walls of the buildings were often decorated with friezes representing abstract motifs and anthropomorphical and zoomorphical subjects. Around these nine complexes were thirty-two semi-monumental compounds and four production sectors for activities such as weaving wood and metalworking. Extensive agricultural areas and a remnant irrigation system have been found further to the north, east and west of the city.” [8]

Chan Chan was the largest city of the pre-Columbian era[9] in South America.[10] What remains of it is now an archaeological site in the La Libertad Region five kilometres (3.1 mi) west of Trujillo, Peru.[11] The city’s remains are located in the mouth of the Moche Valley[12]. Chan Chan was the capital of the historical empire of the Chimor from 900 to 1470[13], when they were defeated and incorporated into the Inca Empire.[14] Chimor, a conquest state,[15] developed from the Chimú culture, establishing itself along the Peruvian coast around 900 AD.[16]

Chan Chan is in a particularly arid section of the coastal desert of northern Peru.[17] Due to the lack of rain in this area, the major source of nonsalted water for Chan Chan is from rivers carrying surface runoff from the Andes, allowing for control of land and water through irrigation systems.

The city had a dense urban centre of six square kilometres which contained extravagant ciudadelas[18] (large architectural masterpieces which housed plazas, storerooms, and burial platforms for the royals). The splendour of these ciudadelas suggests their association with the royal class. Housing for the lower classes of Chan Chan’s hierarchical society is known as small, irregular, agglutinated rooms (a bit of a mouthful, I know, but known as SIARs). Because the lower classes were often artisans whose role in the empire was to produce crafts, many of these SIARs were used as workshops.[19]

The city has ten walled ciudadelas, which housed ceremonial rooms, burial chambers, temples, reservoirs and residences for the Chimú kings.[20] In addition to the ciudadelas, other compounds present in Chan Chan include courts, or audiencias,[21] small, irregular agglutinated rooms (SIARs), and mounds called huacas.[22] Evidence for the significance of these structures is seen in many funerary ceramics recovered from Chan Chan.[23]

Many images seemingly depict structures very similar to audiencias[24] which indicates the cultural importance of architecture to the Chimú people of Chan Chan. Additionally, the construction of these massive architectural feats suggests that there was a large labour force available at Chan Chan.[25] This further supports evidence for a hierarchical structure of society in Chan Chan, as it was likely that this architecture was constructed using working-class labour.[26]

Caption: Chan Chan wall.
Attribution: Håkan Svensson, CC BY-SA 3.0 <;, via Wikimedia Commons

Page URL:

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Chan Chan is triangular, surrounded by 50–60-foot (15–18 m) walls.[27] There are no enclosures opening north because the north-facing walls have the greatest sun exposure, serving to block wind and absorb sunlight where fog is frequent.[28] The tallest walls shelter against south-westerly winds from the coast. The walls are adobe brick[29], covered with a smooth surface into which intricate designs are carved. The two styles of carving design include a realistic representation of subjects such as birds, fish, and small mammals, as well as a more graphic, stylised representation of the same subjects. The carvings at Chan Chan depict crabs, turtles, and nets for catching sea creatures (such as Spondylus). Chan Chan, unlike most coastal ruins in Peru, is very close to the Pacific Ocean.[30]

Chan Chan is believed to have been constructed around 850 AD by the Chimú.[31] It had an estimated population of 40,000–60,000 people.[32]

After the Inca conquered the Chimú around 1470 AD, Chan Chan fell into decline.[33] The Incas used a system called the “Mitma system of ethnic dispersion”, which dispersed the Chimú civilians to places already recently conquered by the Inca. A little over 60 years later, in 1535 AD, Francisco Pizarro founded the Spanish city of Trujillo, which pushed Chan Chan further into the shadows.[34] While no longer a teeming capital city, Chan Chan was still well known for its great riches and was consequently looted by the Spaniards.[35] An indication of the great Chimú wealth is seen in a 16th century list of items stolen from a burial tomb in Chan Chan; a treasure equivalent to 80,000 pesos of gold was recovered (nearly $5,000,000 US dollars in gold).[36]

In 1969, Michael Moseley and Carol J. Mackey began excavations of Chan Chan. Today these excavations continue under the Peruvian Instituto Nacional de Cultura[37]. Moseley and Mackey are renowned archaeologists who have made significant contributions to the understanding of Chan Chan through their research and fieldwork:

  • Michael Moseley is an American archaeologist who has conducted extensive research in the Andean region, including studying the Chimú civilisation and Chan Chan. His work at Chan Chan focused on understanding the urban planning, architectural features, and socio-political organisation of the site. Moseley’s research emphasized the layout and functionality of the different sectors within Chan Chan. He explored the political and administrative structures, the organisation of residential areas, and the ceremonial and religious significance of the city. His contributions have shed light on the social complexity and cultural practices of the Chimú civilisation.
  • Carol J. Mackey, also an American archaeologist, has conducted significant research at Chan Chan. Her work has focused on various aspects of the site, including the architectural features, iconography, and craftsmanship of the Chimú civilisation. Her research has provided insights into the symbolic meaning and cultural significance of the intricate wall reliefs and decorations found throughout Chan Chan. She has examined the motifs, designs, and representations in the art and iconography of the city, contributing to our understanding of the religious and ideological beliefs of the Chimú people.

The work at Chan Chan by Moseley and Mackey has added to the broader knowledge of the site and the Chimú civilisation and has expanded our understanding of the urban planning, social organisation, artistic expressions, and cultural practices of the ancient city and its inhabitants. But they are not alone – Moseley and Mackey are just two of the many scholars and researchers who have contributed to the study of Chan Chan. The collaborative efforts of numerous experts and interdisciplinary teams continue to advance our understanding of this unique archaeological site.

UNESCO World Heritage Site
On 28 November 1986, UNESCO designated Chan Chan as a World Heritage Site[38] and placed it on the List of World Heritage in Danger. The World Heritage Committee’s initial recommendations included taking the appropriate measures for conservation, restoration, and management, thereby halting any excavation that did not have accompanying conservation measures and mitigating plundering.

A Pan-American Course on the Conservation and Management of Earthen Architectural and Archaeological Heritage was funded by many institutes coming together, including ICCROM, the Getty Conservation Institute, and the Government of Peru.[39]

Archaeologists have been trying to protect the city in many ways. They are trying to create rain coverings over the buildings to protect them from the rain and save the adobe buildings that are deteriorating. They have also been trying to make new drainage systems to drain the rainwater faster.[40]

Chan Chan has been on the world heritage danger list since 1986, and since 2000, safety measures have been implemented that include documentation of everything, public management, and an emergency and disaster plan.[41]

Chan Chan’s Palaces
Chan Chan is renowned for its impressive walled compounds known as palaces. They are a defining feature of the ancient city. These palaces were the centres of power, administration, and residence for the rulers and elite of the Chimú civilisation:

  • Layout and Organisation: The city of Chan Chan is divided into ten (if you include the Tschudi Complex) distinct walled compounds, each referred to as a palace. These palaces are large enclosures surrounded by high walls made of adobe bricks. Each palace has its own unique architectural features, layout, and ceremonial spaces.
  • Tschudi Complex: The Tschudi Complex is one of the most well-known and extensively studied palaces within Chan Chan. It is named after the Swiss explorer Johann Jakob von Tschudi, who provided early documentation of the site. The Tschudi Complex features several plazas, courtyards, ceremonial platforms, and intricate wall reliefs.
  • Architectural Features: The palaces at Chan Chan exhibit distinct architectural characteristics. The walls of the palaces are decorated with intricate friezes, reliefs, and carvings depicting various motifs, including marine life, birds, geometric patterns, and mythological figures. The interior of the palaces consists of interconnected rooms, passageways, and storage areas.
  • Function and Purpose: The palaces served multiple functions within the Chimú society. They were centres of political and administrative power, where rulers and elite members of the Chimú civilisation lived. The palaces housed governmental offices, living quarters, ceremonial spaces, and areas for economic activities.
  • Symbolic and Ritual Significance: The wall reliefs and decorations found within the palaces are believed to have held symbolic and ritual significance. They may have represented the social status, religious beliefs, and mythological narratives of the Chimú rulers. The palaces were likely venues for religious ceremonies, feasts, and other important rituals conducted by the ruling elite.
  • Urban Planning and Design: The construction and layout of the palaces demonstrate advanced urban planning and architectural techniques. The walls and structures were designed to withstand earthquakes and protect the interior from external influences. The strategic placement of the palaces within Chan Chan suggests a hierarchical organisation and a deliberate arrangement of power and authority.
  • Preservation and Conservation: Preservation efforts are ongoing to protect the fragile adobe structures of the palaces from further deterioration caused by natural elements, such as wind and rain, as well as human activities and tourism.

The walled compounds or palaces of Chan Chan provide valuable insights into the political, social, and religious dynamics of the Chimú civilisation. Their architectural grandeur, intricate decorations, and historical significance make them important archaeological sites and cultural heritage of Peru.

The walled compounds (palaces) that make up the metropolis are the following:

The Chan Chan People
Chan Chan had many different types of workers and people. The city consisted of nobles, farmers, fishers, traders, servants, and many others. They had many craftsmen in the city who designed beautiful fabrics, pots, and ceramics.[42]

The Chimú people are best known for their distinctive monochromatic pottery and fine metalworking of copper, gold, silver, bronze, and tumbaga (copper and gold). The pottery is often in the shape of a creature or has a human figure sitting or standing on a cuboid bottle. The shiny black finish of most Chimú pottery was achieved by firing the pottery at high temperatures in a closed kiln, which prevented oxygen from reacting with the clay.[43]

The Chimú civilians had a belief that the Sun created three eggs, gold for the ruler and the elite, silver was for the wives of the rulers and copper was for anyone else not in those two categories. The elite were the ones who lived in comfort, whilst the rest of the civilians lived in small homes that doubled as their workshops.[44]

Caption: Chimú vessel representing a fisherman on a caballito de totora (reed watercraft), 1100–1400 – Museum of the Americas (Madrid).
Attribution: Luis García, CC BY-SA 3.0 <;, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL:

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license.

The initial success of the Chimú was due to their innovative agricultural techniques. They built extensive hydraulic systems using canals, which flowed to large valleys forming complex irrigation systems. The Chimú also used Huachaques, sunken farms that removed the dry top layer of soil, to work with the rich, moist soil beneath; Walk-in wells; and large reservoirs to retain the water they gained from their hydraulic systems.[45]

Heirs of the Mochicas and the Huari, the Chimú culture grew and developed long before the Incas became the largest civilisation on the continent. Their ability to build complex canal systems to bring water to an arid area, added to his remarkable work in ceramics and goldsmithing, made this culture one of the most important in the history of Peru.[46]

Although they were an agricultural city, the Chimú people did excellent jobs on their pottery and textiles, which is what they are most famous for. They designed many beautiful pieces of artwork, some of which are still around today.[47]

Prominent Rulers[48]
According to Chimú mythology, the traditional founding ruler of the Chimú civilisation was Taycanamo. He was believed to have been born from a golden egg and emerged from the sea, having travelled on a balsa raft. This mythical origin story reflects the cultural and spiritual beliefs of the Chimú people, highlighting their connection to the sea and the divine.

Other Rulers of note were:

  • The Chimú civilisation, under the leadership of rulers like Guacricaur, expanded its territory beyond its initial stronghold. Guacricaur was a notable ruler known for his successful military campaigns. He extended Chimú influence into the Moche, Santa, and Zaña valleys, which were adjacent regions along the northern coast of Peru. This expansion allowed the Chimú civilisation to increase its political and economic power, assimilating and integrating diverse communities into their empire.
  • In 1375 AD, during the reign of Nancinpinco, the Chimú civilisation achieved a significant conquest by subjugating the Lambayeque culture, also known as the Sican culture. The Lambayeque civilisation, which had its own distinctive cultural practices and artistic traditions, was absorbed by the Chimú Empire. This absorption involved adopting certain aspects of Lambayeque culture, including creative ideas and cultural practices, by the Chimú civilisation.

The conquest of the Lambayeque culture and subsequent cultural assimilation demonstrate the expansionist tendencies and political dominance of the Chimú people. This absorption of diverse cultures allowed the Empire to strengthen its influence further, enrich its artistic expressions, and enhance its cultural diversity. Their ability to expand their territory and absorb other cultures played a crucial role in their political and economic success. Incorporating different regions and cultural practices fostered a complex society with varied influences, artistic styles, and societal structures.

Concluding Words
In conclusion, Chan Chan stands as a testament to the grandeur and cultural achievements of the Chimú civilisation. This pre-Columbian city, with its intricate architectural complexes, impressive walled compounds, and remarkable artwork, provides invaluable insights into the social, political, and religious aspects of these ancient Andean people.

The rise and flourishing of Chan Chan as the capital of the Chimú Empire showcased the organisational capabilities and artistic craftsmanship of the Chimú people. The city’s layout, with its ten walled palaces and distinct sectors, reflected a hierarchical society with rulers at the apex of power. The rich iconography and elaborate designs adorning the walls of Chan Chan’s palaces demonstrated the deep religious and cultural beliefs of the Chimú people.

The child and llama sacrifices associated with the Chimú civilisation continue to fascinate and raise questions about their purpose and significance. These ritual practices provide a glimpse into the spiritual and cosmological worldview of the Chimú society, as well as the influence of natural phenomena such as El Niño[49] on their religious practices.

The efforts of archaeologists and researchers, including notable figures like Michael Moseley and Carol J. Mackey, have greatly contributed to our understanding of Chan Chan. Their excavations, studies, and preservation initiatives have shed light on the complex urban planning, architectural brilliance, and artistic expressions of the Chimú people and the society in which they lived. However, the preservation and conservation of Chan Chan remain ongoing challenges. The delicate adobe structures are susceptible to erosion and deterioration, necessitating continuous efforts to protect and maintain this exceptional archaeological site.

As a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site, Chan Chan continues to captivate visitors and researchers alike. It serves as a reminder of the rich cultural heritage and historical significance of the ancient civilisations that once flourished along the northern coast of Peru.

Caption: “The Ruins of Chan Chan 1972” by A. Davey is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

Sources and Further Reading



CAUTION: This paper is compiled from the sources stated but has not been externally reviewed. Parts of this paper include information provided via artificial intelligence which, although checked by the author, is not always accurate or reliable. Neither we nor any third parties provide any warranty or guarantee as to the accuracy, timeliness, performance, completeness or suitability of the information and materials covered in this paper for any particular purpose. Such information and materials may contain inaccuracies or errors and we expressly exclude liability for any such inaccuracies or errors to the fullest extent permitted by law. Your use of any information or materials on this website is entirely at your own risk, for which we shall not be liable. It shall be your own responsibility to ensure that any products, services or information available through this paper meet your specific requirements and you should neither take action nor exercise inaction without taking appropriate professional advice. The hyperlinks were current at the date of publication.

End Notes and Explanations
  1. Source: Compiled from research using information at the sources stated throughout the text, together with information provided by machine-generated artificial intelligence at: [chat] and
  2. Explanation: Adobe refers to a building material traditionally made of sun-dried clay, sand, water, and sometimes organic materials like straw or grass. Adobe has been used for centuries in many parts of the world as a construction material, particularly in arid or semi-arid regions. In the context of Chan Chan, “adobe structures,” refers to the buildings and walls that were constructed using adobe. The people of Chan Chan built their city using large rectangular bricks made from a mixture of clay, sand, and water. These adobe bricks were then sun-dried to harden and were used to construct the walls, structures, and buildings within the city. The use of adobe as a building material has several advantages. It is readily available in areas with the right soil composition, it is relatively inexpensive, and it provides good insulation against heat and cold. However, adobe structures are susceptible to erosion and deterioration over time, particularly when exposed to moisture or long-term weathering. In the case of Chan Chan, the adobe structures gradually eroded and collapsed over the centuries, especially after the city was abandoned and left to the elements.
  3. Commentary: The Chimu kingdom flourished from 1300 until conquered first by the Incas in 1462 and then by the Spanish in the 1530s. But through invasion, domination and conquest, the Chimor culture persisted at least as late as 1600. Source: Article by Sarah Booth Conroy in The Washington Post, 13th February 1984, at:
  4. Explanation: The Chimú, who occupied northern Peru before the Incas, and who were ultimately conquered by the Incas a few decades before the Spanish arrival, carried out what has been claimed as the largest single example of mass child sacrifice at Huanchaco, where their chief city of Chan Chan was located. Researchers have identified at least 227 individuals as sacrificial victims, and it is believed that this mass sacrifice may have been carried out to appease deities who were supposedly bringing extreme rainfall weather conditions upon the Chimú. Source: “Archaeologists in Peru unearth 227 bodies in the biggest-ever discovery of child sacrifice”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29th August 2019. Cited at:
  5. Source and acknowledgement:
  6. Source:
  7. Source:
  8. Source:
  9. Explanations: [1] The term “pre-Columbian” refers to the time period in the Americas before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. It is spelt with a “u” instead of an “o” because it derives from the name “Columbus” rather than “Colombian.” The spelling “pre-Columbian” is based on the convention of using the name “Columbus” as an adjective to describe things related to him or his era. Similarly, the adjective form of “America” is “American,” not “Americian.” Therefore, the term “pre-Columbian” is used to describe the time, cultures, and civilizations that existed in the Americas prior to Columbus’s arrival. It’s worth noting that the term “pre-Columbian” is used broadly to refer to the indigenous cultures and civilizations of the Americas, including Peru. These cultures had rich histories and developed advanced societies long before the arrival of Europeans. The term helps to distinguish and recognise the unique cultural heritage of the Americas before European colonisation.[2] the naming of Colombia: Colombia is named after Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón in Spanish), the Italian explorer who is widely credited with discovering the Americas. The name “Colombia” was proposed by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a tribute to Columbus. Francisco de Miranda, an important figure in the South American independence movement, envisioned a united and independent Spanish-speaking territory in the Americas. He proposed the name “Colombia” in the early 19th century as a way to honour Columbus and to symbolise the unity of the newly independent nations in the region. The name gained popularity, particularly during the period of Spanish American independence from Spain, and it was officially adopted when the Republic of Colombia was established in 1819. The territory of present-day Colombia was part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, a Spanish colony, prior to its independence. It’s important to note that the name “Colombia” was originally used to refer to a broader territory encompassing present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, and parts of northern Peru and northwest Brazil. Over time, these territories separated and became distinct nations, but Colombia retained its name as a sovereign country.
  10. Source: Carter, Benjamin (2008-01-01). Technology, Society and Change: Shell Artifact Production Among the Manteno (A.D. 800–1532) of Coastal EcuadorISBN 9780549646341. Cited at:
  11. Source:  The Smithsonian Staff (March 2010), “10 Must-See Endangered Cultural Treasures”, Smithsonian, 39 (12): 35, Chan Chan, Peru, End of an Empire by Bruce Hathaway. Cited at:
  12. Source:  Moseley, Michael (24th January 1975). “Chan Chan: Andean Alternative of the Preindustrial City“. Science. 187 (4173): 219–225. Cited at:
  13. Source:  Moseley, Michael (24th January 1975). “Chan Chan: Andean Alternative of the Preindustrial City“. Science. 187 (4173): 219–225. Cited at:
  14. Source:  Rowe, John (1948). “The Kingdom of Chimor”. Acta Americana.  Cited at:
  15. Source: Moseley, Michael (24th January 1975). “Chan Chan: Andean Alternative of the Preindustrial City“. Science. 187 (4173): 219–225   Cited at:
  16. Source: D’Altroy, Terence (2002). The Incas. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 41ISBN 978-0-631-17677-0.   Cited at:
  17. Source: Holstein, Otto (1927). “Chan-Chan: Capital of the Great Chimu“. Geographical Review. 17 (1): 36–61. doi:10.2307/208132.  Cited at:
  18. Source: Moseley, Michael (24th January 1975). “Chan Chan: Andean Alternative of the Preindustrial City“. Science. 187 (4173): 219–225. Cited at:
  19. Source: Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc. Cited at:
  20. Ibid.
  21. Source: Keatinge, Richard; Day, Kent (Winter 1973). “Socio-Economic Organization of the Moche Valley, Peru, during the Chimu Occupation of Chan Chan”. Journal of Anthropological Research. 29 (4): 275–295. doi:10.1086/jar.29.4.3629879. JSTOR 3629879. S2CID 163416043. Cited at:
  22. Source: Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc. Cited at:
  23. Source: Source: Keatinge, Richard; Day, Kent (Winter 1973). “Socio-Economic Organization of the Moche Valley, Peru, during the Chimu Occupation of Chan Chan”. Journal of Anthropological Research. 29 (4): 275–295. doi:10.1086/jar.29.4.3629879. JSTOR 3629879. S2CID 163416043. Cited at:
  24. Ibid.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Ibid.
  27. Source: West, Michael (January 1970). “Community Settlement Patterns at Chan Chan, Peru”. American Antiquity. 35 (1): 74–86. doi:10.2307/278179. JSTOR 278179. S2CID 163958191. Cited at:
  28. Source: Murray, T (2001). “Chan Chan”. Encyclopedia of Archaeology: History and Discoveries. Cited at:
  29. Source: Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc. Cited at:
  30. Source: The Inca World: The development of pre-Columbian Peru, A.D. 1000-1534 by Laura Laurencich Minelli, Cecilia Bákula, Mireille Vautier – Google Books. Cited at:
  31. Source: Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc. Cited at:
  32. Ibid,
  33. Ibid.
  34. Ibid.
  35. Ibid.
  36. Ibid.
  37. Source: Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc. Cited at:
  38. Source: “Chan Chan la Ciudadela de Barro que resiste al paso del tiempo”. 23 November 2012. Cited at:
  39. Source: Correia, M (2012-05-31), “Which course of action for earthen architectural heritage preservation?”, Rammed Earth Conservation, CRC Press, doi:10.1201/b15164-4, ISBN 978-0415621250. Cited at:
  40. Source: “A quick guide to chan chan’s climate crisis”. arts and culture. arts and culture. Cited at:
  41. Source: “UNESCO”. Chan Chan Archaeological Zone. UNESCO. Cited at:
  42. Source: “What Was It Like to Live During the Peak of the Chimu Empire”. Google Arts & Culture. Cited at:
  43. Source:
  44. Source: “Tucuna | people | Britannica”. Cited at:
  45. Source:
  46. Source:
  47. Source; “Tucuna | people | Britannica”. Cited at:
  48. Source: ChatGPT, Artificial Intelligence, 17th May 2023
  49. Explanation: El Niño is a weather phenomenon that occurs in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. It refers to a warming of the sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern Pacific, which can have significant impacts on weather patterns around the world. El Niño events are characterized by the interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere, resulting in complex climate changes. El Niño typically occurs irregularly, with episodes happening every few years and lasting for several months to a couple of years. It is part of a larger climate pattern known as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The opposite phase of El Niño is called La Niña, characterized by cooler sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific. During an El Niño event, the warmer ocean temperatures in the central and eastern Pacific can affect the global climate in various ways. It can alter atmospheric circulation patterns, leading to shifts in rainfall patterns and temperature distributions. The impacts of El Niño can be felt in different regions, resulting in droughts, floods, storms, and other extreme weather conditions. El Niño has significant implications for ecosystems, agriculture, and economies worldwide. It can influence fishing industries, agricultural productivity, water availability, and even contribute to the intensification of tropical cyclones in certain regions. The severity and specific impacts of El Niño can vary from event to event and are influenced by other climate factors. The name “El Niño” originated in the coastal regions of Peru and Ecuador, where the phenomenon was first recognized. It translates to “the boy” or “the Christ Child” in Spanish, referring to its tendency to occur around Christmas time. The term was adopted globally to describe this climate phenomenon. Understanding and monitoring El Niño events is crucial for climate scientists, meteorologists, and policymakers to anticipate and manage the associated climate impacts. Global organizations, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), closely monitor and provide updates on El Niño and its potential consequences.

Leave a Reply

Blog at

%d bloggers like this: