The Martin Pollins Blog

History, economics, business, politics…and Sussex

Napoleon  Bonaparte – the Corsican who ruled France


Picture Credit: Bonaparte Crossing the Alps, realist version by Paul Delaroche in 1848
Page URL:

Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the most famous and influential figures in European history, who rose from relative obscurity to become the Emperor of France in the early 19th century. His impact on the world was immense, as he reshaped the political and social landscape of Europe during his time in power.

Born in Corsica in 1769, Napoleon was educated in France and quickly rose through the ranks of the military during the French Revolution. Proving his worth as a brilliant strategist and leader, he was soon given command of the French army.

Napoleon’s military successes propelled him to the position of First Consul of France in 1799, and he was later crowned Emperor in 1804. His reign was marked by a series of sweeping reforms, including introducing a new legal code and establishing a centralised system of government.

Napoleon was a controversial figure, both during his lifetime and in the years that followed his downfall. Some saw him as a hero and a visionary, while others viewed him as a power-hungry tyrant willing to do whatever it took to stay in power and at any cost. Yet, despite the mixed opinions about him, it is clear he had a huge impact on the history of France and the rest of Europe. His reign marked a period of great change and upheaval, and his legacy continues to be felt to this day.

In this paper, I will explore the life and legacy of Napoleon Bonaparte, examining his rise to power, his achievements as Emperor, and his eventual downfall. I plan to explain how his ideas and policies have shaped modern France and the rest of the world.

Goals and Ambitions
Napoleon had many goals and ambitions throughout his life and career. Some of the key things he was trying to achieve include:

  • Military conquest: Napoleon was a military leader first and foremost, and his primary goal was to conquer and expand the French Empire. He led numerous successful military campaigns across Europe, hoping to establish a powerful and dominant France.
  • Political power: Besides his military ambitions, Napoleon was interested in consolidating and maintaining his political power. He sought to centralise the French government, strengthen the executive branch, and weaken the power of the nobility and other rivals.
  • Reforms and modernisation: Napoleon was also interested in implementing various social, economic, and political reforms to modernise France and make it a more efficient and prosperous nation. He introduced the Napoleonic Code, which codified civil law and promoted equality under the law, as well as reforms to the education system, religious institutions, and the economy.
  • Personal glory and legacy: Like many powerful leaders throughout history, Napoleon was also driven by a desire for personal glory and legacy. He wanted to be remembered as a great military leader and statesman, and he took steps to ensure that his achievements would be celebrated long after his death.

Overall, Napoleon was a complex figure with many different motivations and goals. His legacy is a subject of much debate and discussion, and historians continue to study and analyse his life and career to this day.

Most Formidable Adversaries
Napoleon Bonaparte faced many formidable adversaries during his military campaigns, but two of the most famous were Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, and Horatio Nelson, the 1st Viscount Nelson. Both men were British military leaders who played key roles in opposing Napoleon’s forces.

The Duke of Wellington
Picture Credit: The Duke of Wellington” by lluisribesmateu1969 is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

While there is no definitive record of Napoleon’s personal opinion on who he considered his greatest adversary, evidence suggests that he greatly respected both Wellington and Nelson.

  • In terms of Wellington, Napoleon is reported to have called him “a bad general” early in their rivalry but later changed his mind and said that Wellington was “worth six generals“. The two men faced each other in the famous Battle of Waterloo in 1815, which ended in a decisive victory for Wellington’s forces and marked the end of Napoleon’s reign.
  • As for Nelson, Napoleon is said to have called him “the only man who ever gave me a cold shudder“, likely referring to Nelson’s reputation as a skilled naval commander and his daring tactics and willingness to take risks in battle. The two men faced each other at the Battle of the Nile in 1798, which resulted in a British victory and marked a significant setback to Napoleon’s plans to expand the French empire.

A picture containing text, person, wearing, yellow Description automatically generated
Picture Credit: Rear-Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, 1758-1805
Attribution: Lemuel Francis Abbott, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL:

­Bonaparte’s Battles
Details of Napoleon Bonaparte’s most significant battles are covered later, but here is an overview:

  • Napoleon’s military campaigns began in 1796 when he was sent to Italy to fight the Austrians. He won several decisive battles and forced Austria to sign a peace treaty.
  • He then turned his attention to Egypt, hoping to cut off British access to India. However, this campaign was unsuccessful, and he was forced to return to France.
  • In 1805, Napoleon defeated the combined forces of Russia and Austria at the Battle of Austerlitz, which is considered one of his greatest victories.
  • He then conquered much of Europe, including Italy, Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, and parts of Germany. However, his attempt to conquer Russia in 1812 was disastrous, losing most of his army.

Napoleon Bonaparte fought over 80 battles in his military career, losing only eleven[2], mostly at the end when the French army was not as dominant. His career spanned over 20 years, during which he led the French troops to glory in the Napoleonic Wars. Despite his winning war record, Napoleon’s military career ended in defeat. Napoleon has since been regarded as a military genius and one of the finest commanders in history. His wars and campaigns have been studied at military schools worldwide. The French dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812.

Fighting to expand his French Empire and challenge the supremacy of Britain and other European powers[3], he fought battles in Egypt, Italy, Spain, Russia, Germany and Belgium, among other placesHe won most battles but lost the final one at Waterloo against a coalition of British and Prussian forces[4].

Chronological List of Bonaparte’s Main Battles

  • Battle of Lodi (10 May 1796): Fought between the armies of France and Austria in Italy near Milan at Lodi bridge. Bonaparte led 12,000 French troops against 10,000 Austrians. The Austrian rear guard led by Karl Philipp Sebottendorf at Lodi, Lombardy, in northern Italy. The rear guard was defeated, but the main body of Johann Peter Beaulieu‘s Austrian Army had time to retreat. The battle was part of Bonaparte’s first Italian campaign to secure France’s southern border. The French won a narrow victory after Bonaparte personally led a charge across the bridge.[5]
  • Battle of Arcole (15–17 November 1796): Fought between the armies of France and Austria in Italy southeast of Verona at Arcole bridge. Bonaparte led 20,000 French troops against 24,000 Austrians. The battle was part of Bonaparte’s first Italian campaign to secure France’s southern border in the War of the First Coalition (part of the French Revolutionary Wars). The French won a narrow victory after Bonaparte personally led a charge across the bridge. It was a highly significant event during the third Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua.[6]
  • Battle of Rivoli (14–15 January 1797): Fought between the armies and France and Austria in Italy near Verona at Rivoli village. Bonaparte led 23,000 French troops against 28,000 Austrians under General of the Artillery (Jozsef Alvinczi), ending Austria’s fourth and final attempt to relieve the siege of Mantua. Rivoli further demonstrated Napoleon’s capability as a military commander and led to the French consolidation of northern Italy. The battle was part of Bonaparte’s first Italian campaign to secure France’s southern border. The French won a decisive victory and forced Austria to sue for peace.[7]
  • Battle of Pyramids (21 July 1798): also known as the Battle of Embabeh, was a major military engagement during the French Invasion of Egypt. It was fought between the French army and local Mamluk forces in Egypt. Bonaparte led 25,000 French troops against 40,000 Mamluks. The battle occurred near the village of Embabeh, across the Nile River from Cairo, but was named by Napoleon after the Great Pyramid of Giza, which was just visible nearly nine miles away. After capturing Alexandria and crossing the desert, the French army scored a decisive victory, wiping out almost the entire Ottoman army located in Egypt. The battle was part of Bonaparte’s campaign to secure Egypt and threaten British interests in India. The French won a decisive victory and captured Cairo.[8]
  • Battle of the Nile (1–3 August 1798): also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay, the battle was fought between the French and British fleets in Egypt near Alexandria at Aboukir Bay, on the Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta of Egypt. Bonaparte did not participate directly but planned to use his naval forces to support his Egyptian campaign against British India as part of a greater effort to drive Britain out of the French Revolutionary Wars. The battle was part of the Second Coalition War against France. During the battle, the French flagship L’Orient exploded (see later), which prompted the rear division of the French fleet to attempt to break out of the bay. The British won a decisive victory and destroyed most of the French fleet.[9]
  • Battle of Aboukir (25 July 1799): Fought between the armies of France and Ottomans in Egypt near Alexandria at Aboukir bay. Bonaparte led 10,000 French troops against Seid Mustafa Pasha‘s Ottoman army of 18,000 men. The battle was part of Bonaparte’s Egyptian campaign to threaten British interests in India. The Turkish army fled in panic. Some Ottomans drowned trying to swim to the British ships two miles away from shore, while others fled to Aboukir castle but surrendered shortly afterwards. The Turkish army was annihilated, but French losses were under 1,000. The French won a decisive victory and captured most of the Ottoman army.[10]
  • Battle of Marengo (14 June 1800): Fought between the French and Austrian forces in Italy near the city of Alessandria in Piedmont, Italy. Bonaparte led 28,000 French troops against 31,000 Austrians. The battle was part of Bonaparte’s attempt to regain control of Italy after his return from Egypt. The French won a narrow victory after a surprise attack by General Desaix[11].
  • Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805): Fought between the French-Spanish fleet and British fleet in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Spain near Cape Trafalgar. Bonaparte did not participate directly but planned to invade Britain with his naval forces. The battle was part of the Third Coalition War against France. As part of Napoleon‘s plans to invade England, the French and Spanish fleets combined to take control of the English Channel and provide the Grande Armée safe passage. The allied fleet, under the command of the French admiral, Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, sailed from the port of Cádiz in the south of Spain on 18 October 1805. They encountered the British fleet under Lord Nelson, recently assembled to meet this threat, in the Atlantic Ocean along the southwest coast of Spain, off Cape Trafalgar. Nelson was outnumbered, with 27 British ships of the line to 33 allied ships, including the largest warship in either fleet, the Spanish Santísima Trinidad. To address this imbalance, Nelson sailed his fleet directly at the allied battle line’s flank, hoping to break it into pieces. Villeneuve had worried that Nelson might attempt this tactic but, for various reasons, had made no plans in case this occurred. The plan worked almost perfectly; Nelson’s columns split the Franco-Spanish fleet in three, isolating the rear half from Villeneuve’s flag aboard Bucentaure. The allied vanguard sailed off while it attempted to turn around, giving the British superiority over the remainder of their fleet. The ensuing fierce battle resulted in 22 allied ships being lost, while the British lost none. The British won a decisive victory and destroyed most of the French-Spanish fleet, but Britain’s Admiral Horatio Nelson was killed.[12]

hms victory in action battle of trafalgar
Picture Credit:HMS Victory in action battle of trafalgar” by ukdamian is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

  • Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors: Fought between the French army and the Russian-Austrian army in Moravia near Austerlitz in the Austrian Empire (modern-day Slavkov u Brna in the Czech Republic). Bonaparte led 68,000 French troops against 90,000 Russians and Austrians. The battle was part of the Third Coalition War against France and was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars. The victory of Napoleon’s Grande Armée at Austerlitz brought the War of the Third Coalition to a rapid end, with the Treaty of Pressburg signed by the Austrians later in the month.[13] The battle is often cited as a tactical masterpiece in the same league as other historic engagements such as Cannae or Gaugamela.[14] The French won a decisive victory and forced Austria to make peace[15].
  • Battle of Jena-Auerstädt (14 October 1806): Fought between the French and Prussian armies in Germany near Jena and Auerstädt (on the plateau west of the river Saale in today’s Germany). Bonaparte led 96,000 French troops against 122,000 Prussians. The battle was part of the Fourth Coalition War against France. The French won a decisive victory and occupied most of Prussia[16]. The defeat suffered by the Prussian Army subjugated the Kingdom of Prussia to the French Empire until the Sixth Coalition was formed in 1813.[17]
  • Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau (7–8 February 1807): Fought between the French and Russian armies in Poland near Königsberg at Eylau town. Bonaparte led 75,000 French troops against 76,000 Russians. The bloody and strategically inconclusive battle was part of the Fourth Coalition War against France after Prussia’s defeat at Jena-Auerstädt. Late in the battle, the Russians received timely reinforcements from a Prussian
    division of von L’Estocq. The military confrontation was inconclusive but resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.[18]
  • Battle of Friedland (14 June 1807): Fought between the French and Russian armies in Poland near Königsberg at Friedland town. Bonaparte led 68,000 French troops against 62,000 Russians led by Count von Bennigsen. The battle was part of the Fourth Coalition War against France after Prussia’s defeat at Jena-Auerstädt. The French won a decisive victory that routed much of the Russian army, which retreated chaotically over the Alle River by the end of the fighting and forced Russia to make peace[19]. The engagement at Friedland was a strategic necessity after the Battle of Eylau earlier in 1807 had failed to yield a decisive verdict for either side.
  • Battle of Aspern-Essling (21–22 May 1809): Fought between the French and Austrian armies in Austria near Vienna at Aspern and Essling villages. Bonaparte led 77,000 French troops against 95,000 Austrians. The battle was part of the Fifth Coalition War against France after Austria’s renewed hostility. Napoleon crossed the Danube near Vienna, but the French and their allies were attacked and forced back across the river by the Austrians
    under Archduke Charles. It was the first time Napoleon had been personally defeated in a major battle and his first defeat in the ten years since the Siege of Acre. Archduke Charles drove out the French but fell short of destroying their army. The Austrian artillery dominated the battlefield, firing 53,000 rounds compared to 24,300 French. The French lost over 20,000 men, including one of Napoleon’s ablest field commanders and closest friends, Marshal Jean Lannes. The Austrians won a rare victory and forced Bonaparte to retreat across the Danube river.[20]
  • Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809): Fought between armies of France and Austria in Austria near Vienna at Wagram village. Bonaparte led 154,000 French troops against 158,000 Austrians. The battle ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon’s French and allied army against the Austrian army commanded by Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle led to the breakup of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France. Wagram was the largest battle in European history up to its time. The French forced Austria to make peace again.[21]
  • Battle of Borodino (7 September 1812): Fought between the armies of France and Russia near Moscow at Borodino village. Bonaparte led 133,000 French troops against 120,000 Russians. The battle was part of Bonaparte’s invasion of Russia to force Tsar Alexander I to accept his continental system. The battle was inconclusive but resulted in heavy casualties on both sides[22].
  • Battle of Leipzig (16–19 October 1813): Fought between the French army and the coalition army of Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden in Germany near Leipzig city. Bonaparte led 191,000 French troops against 380,000 coalition troops. The battle was part of the Sixth Coalition War against France after Bonaparte retreated from Russia. The coalition won a decisive victory and forced Bonaparte to flee to France.[23]
  • Battle of Quatre Bras (16 June 1815): Fought between the French and British-Dutch armies in Belgium near Waterloo at Quatre Bras crossroads. It was a preliminary engagement to the decisive Battle of Waterloo that took place two days later. Bonaparte did not participate directly but sent Marshal Ney to attack the coalition forces. The battle was part of the Seventh Coalition War against France after Bonaparte’s escape from the island of Elba, where he had been exiled. The battle was inconclusive but prevented the coalition from concentrating their forces before meeting their waterloo at Waterloo.[24] 
  • Battle of Waterloo (18 June 1815): Fought between the army of France and the coalition army of Britain and Prussia commanded by the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. Bonaparte led 72,000 French troops against 118,000 coalition troops. The battle was part of the Seventh Coalition War against France after Bonaparte’s escape from the island of Elba, where he had been exiled. It took place in Belgium near Waterloo village, in present-day Belgium. The battle began early in the morning and continued until the evening, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. The French gained ground initially but were eventually driven back by the coalition’s superior tactics and reinforcements. The arrival of the Prussian army, which had been delayed by a skirmish earlier in the day, turned the tide of the battle decisively in favour of the coalition, who won a decisive victory. Napoleon was forced to abdicate a few days later, and the battle marked the end of his reign as Emperor of France.[25]

Picture Credit: Morning of the battle, initial disposition of opposing forces (Atlas to Alison’s history of Europe)
Attribution: Alison, Archibald, Sir, bart., 1792-1862; Johnston, Alexander Keith 1804-1871, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL:,_18_June_1815_-_sheet_1st,_morning_of_the_battle_(Alison).jpg

The Explosion on the French flagship L’Orient
I mentioned the Explosion on L’Orient earlier. Casabianca is a poem by the English poet Felicia Dorothea Hemans, first published in The Monthly Magazine, Vol 2, August 1826. The poem starts:

‘The boy stood on the burning deck Whence all, but he had fled;
The flame that lit the Battle’s wreck Shone round him o’er the dead.’

There’s a sad story behind the poem. The story comes from an extraordinary incident of devotion and heroism witnessed during the Battle of the Nile.

On 1st August 1798, the English naval squadron under Lord Nelson sailed into the Battle, catching the French fleet at anchor and completely unprepared. The French flagship was the L’Orient, and it soon found itself flanked by English ships attacking it from both sides. A fierce battle was soon raging, and the flashes of 2000 guns lit up the ships in the gathering darkness. L’Orient was caught by the English broadsides and was set ablaze. It was then that the English sailors saw an amazing sight. There on that burning deck, they saw a boy standing alone. His name was Giocante Casabianca Joseph, the 12-year-old son of Luce Julien Joseph, the commander of L’Orient.

There, the boy stood, alone at his post. He was surrounded by flames and facing the astonished English foe.

Soon afterwards, the fire reached the powder magazine deep down in the hold. The boy perished when L’Orient erupted in a massive explosion, the sound of which was heard at Rosetta, which was 20 miles away. And the glow of the fireball was seen as far away as Alexandria. It was an enormous explosion of a magnitude rarely seen back in those times.

Picture Credit: The Destruction of “L’Orient” at the Battle of the Nile, 1 August 1798.
Attribution: George Arnald, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
Page URL:

Early Life and Role in the French Revolution

Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 on the island of Corsica to a family of minor Italian nobility. His father, Carlo Buonaparte, was an attorney and political activist who supported Corsican independence from France. His mother, Letizia Ramolino, was a strong and intelligent woman who played a major role in shaping Napoleon’s character and personality.

Napoleon had eight siblings, including an older brother named Joseph and a younger brother named Jerome. He also had four younger sisters. Joseph went on to become King of Naples and later King of Spain, while Jerome became King of Westphalia.

Marriages and Children
Napoleon Bonaparte married twice and had four children:

  • His first wife was Josephine de Beauharnais (1763-1814), a widow with two children from her previous marriage: Eugene and Hortense.[26] Napoleon loved them as his own, and they became part of his family. Napoleon and Josephine were divorced in 1809.
  • His second wife was Marie Louise of Austria (1791-1847), a daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria. They married in 1810 and had one son: Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte (1811-1832), also known as Napoleon II or the King of Rome[27].
  • Napoleon also had two illegitimate children: Charles Leon Denuelle (1806-1881), a son with Eleonore Denuelle de la Plaigne, a maid of honour to Josephine; and Alexandre Colonna-Walewski (1810-1868), a son with Marie Walewska, a Polish noblewoman who became his mistress during his campaign in Poland.[28]

Education and the Military
Napoleon received his early education at a religious school in France, where he excelled in mathematics and science but struggled with language studies. He then attended military school in Brienne-le-Château, where he excelled academically and showed a keen interest in military strategy and tactics.

In 1785, Napoleon was admitted to the prestigious École Militaire in Paris, where he received advanced training in artillery and engineering. He graduated from the school in 1785 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the French army. Napoleon’s military education and training would play a crucial role in his later career, as he became one of the most successful and innovative military commanders of his time. His time at the École Militaire also exposed him to the political and social turmoil of the French Revolution, which would shape his worldview and ambitions for years to come.

Role in the French Revolution
Napoleon Bonaparte played a significant role in the French Revolution, which began in 1789 and led to the overthrow of the French monarchy and the establishment of a republic. Although he was still a relatively unknown military officer, he quickly rose to prominence due to his military successes and political connections.

One of Napoleon’s earliest contributions to the Revolution was his defence of the National Convention, the governing body of the new republic, during a rebellion in 1795. His decisive actions helped to save the Convention and solidified his reputation as a skilled military leader and defender of the Revolution.

In 1796, Napoleon was appointed commander of the French army in Italy and launched a series of successful campaigns against Austrian forces. These victories helped to secure the French Republic’s hold on Italy and made Napoleon a national hero.

Napoleon also played a role in the coup d’état of 18 Brumaire[29] in 1799, which overthrew the Directory, the governing body of the French Republic, and established the Consulate, with Napoleon as its First Consul, thus starting his rise to power as one of the most important figures in French politics and military affairs.

Becoming Emperor
Napoleon implemented several significant reforms that transformed French society and politics during his tenure as First Consul and later Emperor. He introduced the Napoleonic Code, a comprehensive legal code that promoted equality and civil rights, as well as reforms to education, the economy, and the military.

While some historians view Napoleon as a hero of the Revolution for his defence of the Republic and his efforts to promote progressive reforms, others view him as a dictator who betrayed the revolutionary ideals of liberty and equality. Ultimately, the legacy of Napoleon and his role in the French Revolution remain a subject of debate and discussion among historians and scholars.

Strengths and Weaknesses
Napoleon Bonaparte was a complex figure with many strengths and weaknesses. Here are some of his notable characteristics:


  • Military genius: Napoleon is widely regarded as one of the greatest military commanders in history. He had a strategic mind and was known for his innovative tactics and ability to inspire his troops.
  • Charismatic leadership: Napoleon had a magnetic personality and could inspire his followers with his confidence, charisma, and force of personality.
  • Determination and resilience: Napoleon was known for his ability to persevere despite obstacles and setbacks. He was a relentless and determined leader willing to take risks and make difficult decisions to achieve his goals.
  • Administrative ability: Napoleon was a skilled administrator who implemented reforms and modernised the French government and economy.


  • Overconfidence: Napoleon’s belief in his abilities sometimes led him to take unnecessary risks or underestimate his opponents, ultimately contributing to his downfall.
  • Arrogance and lack of diplomacy: Napoleon’s brash personality and tendency to offend others with his arrogance and lack of tact often created enemies and caused unnecessary conflicts.
  • Lack of patience: Napoleon was known for his impatience and tendency to rush into action without fully considering the consequences or long-term implications.
  • Hubris: Napoleon’s desire for personal glory and legacy sometimes led him to make decisions that were not in the best interests of France or his long-term personal success.

Napoleon was a complex and multifaceted leader with many strengths and weaknesses. While his military achievements and reforms are still celebrated by some, his legacy remains controversial and the subject of much debate and analysis.

Lesser-Known Facts about Napoleon Bonaparte

  • Napoleon was not French, at least originally. He was born on the island of Corsica, which was a part of the Republic of Genoa at the time of his birth in 1769.
  • Napoleon’s father, Carlo Buonaparte, was a lawyer who became involved in the Corsican resistance movement against French rule. As a result, Napoleon grew up with a strong sense of Corsican identity and a desire to resist French domination.
  • Although Napoleon was not French by birth, he became a French citizen and eventually the Emperor of France. He grew up speaking Italian and only learned French when he attended military school in France.
  • He was not very tall, as many people probably know, but while he was often depicted as short, he was around 5’7” (1.7 m), the average height for a man in his time.
  • Napoleon was not the original leader of the French Revolution. He rose to power after the Reign of Terror and the fall of the Directory, which was the government that preceded him.
  • Napoleon was exiled twice. After his first abdication in 1814, he was exiled to the island of Elba. He escaped and returned to France briefly before he was defeated by Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled again, this time to the remote island of Saint Helena.
  • Napoleon was a prolific writer, producing over 33,000 letters during his lifetime.
  • He was a big fan of literature and especially enjoyed the works of Shakespeare, Goethe, and Voltaire.
  • Napoleon was also interested in science and technology. He established the Légion d’honneur to encourage scientific and technical innovation.
  • Napoleon’s marriage to Josephine de Beauharnais was not a happy one. They both had affairs, and Napoleon eventually divorced her to marry Marie Louise of Austria.
  • Napoleon was a big believer in education and established many schools and universities in France during his reign.
  • He was not averse to using propaganda to build his image. He commissioned many portraits and sculptures of himself and encouraged his soldiers to sing songs about him.
  • Napoleon was not just a military leader. He was also a reformer who introduced many changes to the legal and political systems of France.
  • He was not always successful on the battlefield. His disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 resulted in the loss of most of his army.
  • Napoleon was a staunch supporter of the metric system, which he helped to develop and implement in France.
  • He had many talents and interests, including poetry, music, and art. He even composed music.
  • Napoleon was not afraid to take risks, which sometimes led to great success but also led to his downfall.
  • His younger brother, Joseph Bonaparte, was briefly installed as the King of Spain during Napoleon’s reign.
  • Napoleon was not the only famous person in his family. His sister, Pauline Bonaparte, was known for her beauty and scandalous affairs.
  • Napoleon’s legacy is still felt today, as many of the reforms and institutions he introduced in France, such as the Napoleonic Code, are still in use in various forms in France and other countries around the world.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte is often depicted with one hand inside his waistcoat, a gesture that has become iconic in popular culture. The exact reason for this gesture is unclear, and several theories and explanations have been proposed. It’s worth noting that the gesture did not originate with Napoleon and was not unique to him. Other historical figures, including George Washington and the English poet Lord Byron, have also been depicted with a hand inside their coat. Nonetheless, Napoleon’s association with the gesture has made it an enduring symbol of his leadership and legacy.

The Napoleonic Code
The Napoleonic Code, also known as the French Civil Code, is a set of laws and legal principles introduced by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804. It was a comprehensive reform of French law, replacing the patchwork of different legal systems that existed in the regions of France with a single, unified code. The Napoleonic Code had a significant impact on legal systems around the world, as it became a model for many other legal systems in other countries. It is still considered a foundational document of modern civil law.

The French Rule of Corsica
Corsica was an independent island nation for centuries, but it came under the control of the Republic of Genoa in the 13th century. However, by the mid-18th century, Genoa was in decline, and Corsica faced several revolts against Genoese rule. The most famous of these was led by Pasquale Paoli, who established a constitution and a democratic government. The Corsican Republic was recognised by several European powers, including Great Britain, which sent troops to Corsica to assist Paoli’s forces. However, Paoli’s government faced numerous challenges, including a war with the Genoese and the intervention of foreign powers such as France and Britain.

Everything changed in 1768 when the Republic of Genoa sold Corsica to France, who saw the island as strategically important for their Mediterranean ambitions.

Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica the following year, during the period of French rule. His family was originally part of the Corsican resistance movement against the French, but they eventually accepted French rule, and Napoleon went on to serve in the French military, ultimately rising to become the Emperor of France.

Defeat, Custody, Death and Legacy
Napoleon was defeated in 1814 and abdicated the throne of France. He was exiled to the island of Elba.

The decision to exile him to Elba was made by the Allied Powers, which included Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia after they defeated Napoleon in the War of the Sixth Coalition.

Elba was chosen as Napoleon’s place of exile because it was a small island in the Mediterranean that was relatively isolated, making it difficult for him to escape. The island was also close enough to the coast of Italy that Napoleon would not feel completely cut off from Europe. In addition, the island was seen as a place where Napoleon could be kept under surveillance without being treated too harshly, as he was still considered a high-profile political figure.

Napoleon was given the title of Emperor of Elba and was allowed to keep a small army and govern the island as he saw fit, but after less than a year on Elba, Napoleon escaped and returned to France, where he briefly regained power before being defeated again at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

He returned to France the following year and regained power for a period known as the Hundred Days. He was finally defeated in 1815 at Waterloo[30]. He spent his remaining days in British custody on the remote island of St. Helena[31], a remote volcanic tropical island 1,950 kilometres (1,210 miles) west of the coast of southwestern Africa and 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) east of Rio de Janeiro in South America. He remained there until he died in 1821.

Napoleon’s legacy is a subject of debate, with some seeing him as a military genius and a great leader, while others view him as a dictator and warmonger. He is credited with many military innovations, such as using artillery and organising his armies into corps. He also implemented several political and social reforms in France, such as the Napoleonic Code, which is still used as the basis for many legal systems around the world.

Picture Credit: Bonaparte, First Consul, by Ingres. Posing the hand inside the waistcoat was often used in portraits of rulers to indicate calm and stable leadership.
Attribution: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL:,_Portrait_de_Napol%C3%A9on_Bonaparte_en_premier_consul.jpg

Sources and Further Reading


YouTube Videos:


CAUTION: This paper is compiled from the sources stated but has not been externally reviewed. Parts of this paper include information provided via artificial intelligence which, although checked by the author, is not always accurate or reliable. Neither we nor any third parties provide any warranty or guarantee as to the accuracy, timeliness, performance, completeness or suitability of the information and materials covered in this paper for any particular purpose. Such information and materials may contain inaccuracies or errors and we expressly exclude liability for any such inaccuracies or errors to the fullest extent permitted by law. Your use of any information or materials on this website is entirely at your own risk, for which we shall not be liable. It shall be your own responsibility to ensure that any products, services or information available through this paper meet your specific requirements and you should neither take action nor exercise inaction without taking appropriate professional advice. The hyperlinks were current at the date of publication.

End Notes and Explanations
  1. Sources: Compiled from research using information at the sources stated throughout the text, together with information provided by machine-generated artificial intelligence at: [chat] and
  2. Source:
  3. Sources: and
  4. Sources: and
  5. See more at:
  6. See more at:
  7. See more at:
  8. Sources: and
  9. See more at:
  10. See more at:
  11. See more at: and
  12. See more at: and
  13. Source: de Méneval, Claude-François (1910). de Méneval, Napoléon Joseph Erenst; Collier, Peter Fenelon (eds.). Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte: The Court of the First Empire. Vol. II.  pp. 233–308, Chapter V. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Publishers. ISBN 9781355218760.
  14. Sources: (a) Farwell p. 64. “Austerlitz is generally regarded as one of Napoleon’s tactical masterpieces and has been ranked as the equal of Arbela, Cannae, and Leuthen,” and (b) Dupuy p. 102
  15. See more at: and
  16. See more at:
  17. Source: Chandler, D. (1966). The Campaigns of Napoleon.  pp. 479–506. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-02523-660-8.
  18. See more at:
  19. See more at:
  20. See more at:
  21. See more at:
  22. See more at: and
  23. See more at: and
  24. See more at:
  25. See more at:,, and
  26. Sources: and
  27. Source:
  28. Source:
  29. Explanation: The Coup d’état of 18 Brumaire brought Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France. In the view of most historians, it ended the French Revolution and led to the Coronation of Napoleon as Emperor. This bloodless coup d’état overthrew the Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate. This occurred on 9 November 1799, which was 18 Brumaire, Year VIII under the short-lived French Republican calendar system. Source:
  30. Explanation: Waterloo was, at that time, in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, but is now in Belgium.
  31. Source:  Andrew Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (2014). Cited at:

Leave a Reply

Blog at

%d bloggers like this: