The British East India Company was founded in 1600 by a Royal Charter issued by Queen Elizabeth I of England. It was formed to participate in the East Indian spice trade during the late Elizabethan and early Stuart periods. The company also came to rule large areas of India with its own private armies, laws and administration. The company was also involved in the opium wars with China. The company’s actions in India and China significantly impacted the history of both countries and the British Empire.
It was initially formed to participate in the East Indian spice trade but soon expanded its operations to include other goods such as cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The company established its first factory in Surat, India, in 1613, followed by a network of trading posts and factories across India, including Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta.
Image Credit: Sepoy of the British Indian infantry, circa 1900.
Attribution: See page for author, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sepoy_of_the_Indian_Infantry,_1900_(c)..jpg
The company was led by a Governor and a board of directors in London, who made the major decisions and controlled the company’s finances. The company also had its own private army, known as the “Sepoys,” which was used to protect its trade routes and maintain control over the territories it controlled.
In the early 18th century, the company’s control over India began to grow, and by the mid-19th century, it controlled most of India.
The company significantly impacted the economies, societies and politics of the regions where it operated. In India, it played a major role in shaping the country’s economy, culture and politics. The company established a monopoly on the Indian textile trade and heavily impacted the local industries, resulting in the decline of traditional Indian textile producers. The company also imposed its own administrative system on the territories it controlled, which included its own courts, taxes, and laws, which further consolidated its control over the region, and the company’s officials were known for their corruption and abuse of power, and it became deeply unpopular with the Indian population.
The company, in collaboration with British merchants, began exporting opium from India to China in the late 18th century. The opium trade had a devastating impact on China, leading to widespread addiction, social upheaval, and economic ruin. The Chinese government banned the opium trade, leading to the First Opium War (1839-1842) and Second Opium War (1856-1860) between China and Britain, which resulted in China being forced to open its ports to foreign trade and cede Hong Kong to the British.
In terms of notable people associated with the British East India Company, some of the better-known figures are:
- Robert Clive: He was a British officer and administrator who played a key role in establishing the company’s control over Bengal and other parts of India. He is often referred to as the “founder of British India.”
- Warren Hastings: He was the Governor-General of Bengal from 1773 to 1785 and played a major role in consolidating the company’s control over India. He is also known for his efforts to reform the company’s administration and legal system in India.
- Charles Cornwallis: He served as the Governor-General of India from 1786 to 1793 and is known for reforming the company’s administration and taxation system in India.
- Lord Mountbatten of Burma: He was the last Viceroy of British India, who served from March 1947 until the independence of India and Pakistan on August 15, 1947. He played a crucial role in the transfer of power from the British to the Indian government.
- Lord Curzon: He was the Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905 and played a significant role in shaping British policy towards India during his tenure. He is known for reforming and modernising the Indian administration and education system.
- Lord Dalhousie: He served as the Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856. He is known for his efforts to modernise India and for his policy of “annexation”, through which he expanded the British territories in India.
- Lord Wellesley: He served as the Governor-General of India from 1798 to 1805. He is known for his policy of “subsidiary alliance”, through which he expanded the British territories in India.
- Sir William Jones: He was a British judge, philologist and scholar of ancient India. He was one of the founders of the Asiatic Society and played a significant role in the study and understanding of Indian culture and history during the late 18th century.
- Sir Thomas Roe: He was an English diplomat and the first accredited English ambassador to the court of the Mughal Emperor Jehangir. He played a key role in establishing the British East India Company’s trade relations with India in the early 17th century.
- Sir John Malcolm: He was a British soldier and statesman who played a significant role in the expansion of British India. He served as the Governor of Bombay and as the Governor-General of India and is known for his efforts to modernise and reform the Indian administration.
The list above provides a few examples of the many individuals who played a role in the British East India Company’s history. There are many other figures, some of them famous, some not so much, who played a key role in the company’s operations and shaped its legacy.
In 1857, a rebellion against the company, known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857, broke out. The uprising was put down, but it marked the beginning of the end for the company. In 1858, the British government took control of India from the company, and it was dissolved in 1874. Barely two years later, Queen Victoria was officially proclaimed Empress of India by the British government. This title was conferred on her as part of the Royal Titles Act 1876, which granted her the additional title of Empress of India in recognition of her position as the ruler of British India. The act was passed by the British parliament and was officially announced in a letter from Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli to the Queen. Emperor or Empress of India was a title used by British monarchs from 1 May 1876 (with the Royal Titles Act 1876) to 22nd June 1948 that was used to signify their rule over British India as its imperial head of state.
According to the British Parliament website, the 1857 uprising started because both Hindu and Muslim soldiers in the sepoy, or Indian, regiments of the British East India Company, objected to having to bite open rifle cartridges rumoured to be smeared with fat from animals which were forbidden or sacred in their religions.
The Company’s Formation
In 1599, a group of prominent merchants and explorers met to discuss a potential East Indies venture under a royal charter. Besides Fitch and Lancaster, the group included Stephen Soame (then Lord Mayor of London), Thomas Smythe (a powerful London politician and administrator whose father had established the Levant Company), Sir John Wolstenholme, Richard Hakluyt (writer and apologist for British colonisation of the Americas) and several other sea-farers who had served with Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh).
On 22 September 1599, the group stated their intention “to venture in the pretended voyage to the East Indies (the which it may please the Lord to prosper)” and their willingness to invest £30,133 (over £4 million in today’s money). Two days later, the “Adventurers” reconvened and resolved to apply to the Queen (Elizabeth I) for support of the project. Although their first attempt was not completely successful, they sought the Queen’s unofficial approval to continue. They bought ships for the venture and increased their investment to £68,373.
Citation: Thomas Smythe. (2023, January 3). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Smythe
Attribution: Simon De Passe, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
They convened again a year later, on 31 December 1600, and this time they succeeded; the Queen responded favourably to a petition by “George, Earl of Cumberland and 218 others, including James Lancaster, Sir John Harte, Sir John Spencer (both of whom had been Lord Mayor of London), the adventurer Edward Michelborne, the nobleman William Cavendish and other Aldermen and citizens. She granted her Royal charter to their corporation named Governor and Company of Merchants of London, trading into the East Indies. The charter awarded the company a 15-year monopoly of English trade with all countries east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of the Straits of Magellan. The charter authorised the company to trade in the East Indies on behalf of the crown. Any traders there without a licence from the company were liable to forfeiture of their ships and cargo (half of which would go to the Crown and half to the company), as well as imprisonment at the “royal pleasure”.
The charter named Thomas Smythe as the company’s first governor and 24 directors (including James Lancaster) or “committees”, who made up a Court of Directors. They, in turn, reported to a Court of Proprietors, who appointed them. Ten committees reported to the Court of Directors. By tradition, business was initially transacted in London at the Nags Head Inn, opposite St Botolph’s church in Bishopsgate, before moving to India House in Leadenhall Street.
The company operated a ‘factory system’, a system of trade in which it established trading posts, known as factories, in various locations in India. These factories were used to store and process goods for export and served as the company’s main centres of operations in India.
In 1613, a treaty between the British East India Company and the Mughal emperor Jahangir was agreed upon. The treaty permitted the company to establish a factory in Surat, a major port city in western India. The treaty also established a framework for trade and diplomatic relations between the company and the Mughal Empire.
The Royal Charter granted to the British East India Company by the British government in 1600 gave the company the legal authority to engage in various activities, including the right to wage war. This meant that the company had the power to defend its trading posts and ships and to attack and seize the ships and territories of other countries or groups deemed a threat to its trade. This power allowed the company to build a private military force, which it used to expand its trade and territorial control in India and Southeast Asia. It also meant that the company could act as an independent entity, separate from the British government, which sometimes led to conflicts between the company and local rulers or other European powers.
The Company’s Governors
Thomas Smythe (later Sir Thomas Smythe) and John Watts were both prominent members of the British East India Company during its early years. Thomas Smythe was the first governor of the company, serving in that role from 1600 to 1603. John Watts, who was a wealthy London merchant, served as a Governor of the British East India Company and a director of the company several times between 1612 and 1640. Smythe and Watts played significant roles in the company’s early development, helping to establish its trading operations in India and expand its influence in the region.
The first five governors of the British East India Company, in chronological order, were:
- Thomas Smythe (1600-1603)
- James Lancaster (1603-1605)
- Sir Henry Middleton (1607-1611)
- Sir Thomas Roe (1615-1619)
- Sir Thomas Dale (1619-1622)
The last governor of the British East India Company was Lord William Bentinck, who served from 1828 to 1833.
It should be noted that the title of governor was not used consistently by the company throughout its history, and the company had different positions and titles for its leaders at other times.
The British East India Company was involved in the transatlantic slave trade. It is known to have transported enslaved Africans to its colonies in India, specifically to its trading post at Surat, where they were sold as labour. The company also transported enslaved Africans to other parts of its empire, including the West Indies. The company’s involvement in the slave trade was part of a larger system of exploitation and oppression used to fuel its economic expansion. It is also known that in the 17th and 18th centuries, the British East India Company relied on slave labour and trafficked in slaves from West and East Africa, especially Mozambique and Madagascar, transporting them to its holdings in India and Indonesia as well as to the island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.
The above information is a historical account of the company and its activities. It should be viewed in the context of the time period, and it is not a justification for any of these actions. Exploiting people and resources, including the slave trade, were reprehensible practices that caused immeasurable harm.
Impeachment of Warren Hastings
The impeachment of Warren Hastings, the first governor-general of Bengal, was attempted between 1787 and 1795 in the Parliament of Great Britain. Hastings was accused of misconduct during his time in Calcutta, particularly regarding mismanagement and personal corruption. The impeachment prosecution was led by Edmund Burke and became a wider debate about the role of the British East India Company and the expanding empire in India.
According to historian Mithi Mukherjee, the impeachment trial became the site of a debate between two radically opposed visions of empire—one represented by Hastings, based on ideas of absolute power and conquest in pursuit of the exclusive national interests of the coloniser, versus one represented by Burke of sovereignty, based on a recognition of the rights of the colonised.
Remarkably, the trial did not sit continuously, and the case dragged on for seven years. When the eventual verdict was given, Hastings was overwhelmingly acquitted. It has been described as “probably the British Isles’ most famous, certainly the longest, political trial“.
The Company’s Army and Navy
The British East India Company was a private company and as its trade and influence grew, so did the need for military protection for its operations and personnel. It established its own army and navy, which were both powerful and well-equipped:
- The company’s army was made up of European soldiers, primarily British, as well as Indian sepoys (soldiers). The army was used principally to protect company operations and personnel and expand and maintain the company’s territorial holdings. The army also played a major role in the various conflicts and wars in which Britain was involved in India and Southeast Asia, including the Seven Years’ War, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and the Anglo-Burmese Wars.
- The company’s navy was responsible for protecting company ships and trade routes, as well as for enforcing British trade and naval policies in the region. The navy was made up of ships, mostly naval vessels and some transport ships, owned and operated by the company. The navy also played a major role in the various naval conflicts and wars in which Britain was involved in the region, including the First and Second Anglo-Dutch Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
East India Company Sepoys (Indian infantrymen) in red coats outside Tipu Sultan‘s former summer palace in Bangalore, 1804
Attribution: Hunter, James (d. 1792)
Page URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sepoys_tipoos_palacebangalore1804.jpg
It is important to note that The British East India Company’s military power was ended after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which was also known as the Indian Mutiny. After the rebellion, the British government took control of India from the company and established the British Raj, which was ruled directly by the British government. The company’s army and navy were abolished and replaced by the British Indian Army and the Royal Indian Navy.
The size of the British East India Company’s army and navy varied over time, depending on the needs and resources of the company. At its peak, the EIC army comprised around 260,000 soldiers, of which approximately 200,000 were Indian sepoys. The navy also had a fleet of ships, but the exact number is not known, but it is estimated at around 100-150 ships. The size of the navy was not as significant as the size of the army, as the primary focus of the EIC was trade and commerce rather than naval power. However, the navy was still important for protecting company ships and trade routes and enforcing British trade and naval policies in the region.
The British East India Company’s army and navy were among the most powerful and well-equipped military forces in the region during the time of the company’s existence. The size of the army was comparable to that of the armies of European colonial powers in the region, such as the French and Dutch East India companies.
In terms of naval power, the British East India Company’s navy was not as strong as the navies of European colonial powers, such as the British Royal Navy, the French Navy, and the Dutch Navy. The primary focus of the EIC was trade and commerce rather than naval power, so the size and capabilities of the navy were not as significant as those of the European colonial powers. However, the British East India Company’s army and navy were still formidable forces and played a major role in the territorial expansion and control of British India and Southeast Asia.
Other Chartered Companies
The East India Company was one of the first chartered companies in history, and it was established in 1600. Later on, many other chartered companies were formed, such as the Hudson’s Bay Company, the Dutch East India Company, and the French East India Company, to name a few. These companies were granted a monopoly by their respective governments to conduct trade in specific regions, and they played a significant role in shaping global trade and politics in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
The fate of chartered companies like the East India Company varies. Some of them, like the Dutch East India Company and the French East India Company, were dissolved or merged with other companies. Others remained active for centuries and continue to exist to this day, but their focus and activities have changed over time. The Hudson’s Bay Company, originally chartered in 1670 to trade beaver pelts in North America, remained active for more than three centuries and diversified into other areas such as retail, real estate, and mining – it still exists today, but it is now a Canadian retail company, with no longer a monopoly on fur trade or any other business activity.
The Company’s Rise to Glory
The company’s primary business was the export of goods such as textiles, spices, tea, and opium to Britain and other European countries. It also engaged in the import of goods such as silk, porcelain, and precious metals from Asia. It established a network of trading posts and forts along the coast of India and in other parts of Southeast Asia, and it also formed alliances with local rulers.
Image Credit: The expanded East India House, London, painted by Thomas Malton, c. 1800
Attribution: Thomas Malton the Younger (1748-1804), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:East_India_House_by_Thomas_Malton_the_Younger.jpg
Several factors contributed to the British East India Company’s rise to a corporate zenith, some of which were:
- Timing: The East India Company was established at a time when European powers were beginning to explore and trade with Asia, and it was able to take advantage of this trend.
- Monopoly: The company was granted a monopoly on English trade with the East Indies, which allowed it to control trade in the region and establish a dominant market position.
- Military power: The company had its own private army, which it used to protect its trade interests and expand its territories in India.
- Political influence: The company had strong ties with the British government, which allowed it to shape policy in its favour and secure favourable trade agreements.
- Business acumen: The company had skilled and experienced merchants who were able to navigate the complex trading networks of Asia and establish profitable trade routes.
It was the combination of timing, monopoly, military power, political influence and business acumen that propelled the British East India Company to its corporate zenith. The company established its monopoly using military force, political influence, and economic power. It had its own army, which was used to protect its trade routes and defeat competitors. The company also had a powerful navy, which helped it control the seas and protect its trade routes. It also had a great deal of political influence, as it was able to persuade the British government to pass laws that protected its interests.
The Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company were similar in many ways, as they were both chartered companies that were established to trade with Asia and had similar business models, including a monopoly on trade, private armies and strong ties with their respective governments. Both companies also faced similar challenges, such as navigating complex trading networks, dealing with hostile competitors and protecting their trade routes from pirates. However, there were some key differences:
- The Dutch East India Company was established earlier than the British East India Company, in 1602, with a longer trading history and more established trading networks in Asia. The Dutch East India Company was also the first company to issue stocks and bonds, making it the world’s first publicly traded company.
- On the other hand, the British East India Company had a more powerful naval force than the Dutch East India Company, which gave it an advantage in protecting its trade routes and territorial holdings. The British East India Company also had a larger and more diverse trading network than the Dutch East India Company, which allowed it to be more resilient to changes in the market.
The Company’s Downward Spiral and Winding Up
The British East India Company had played a significant role in the colonisation and administration of India by the British, but by the late 19th century, the company’s power had waned, and the British government saw the need for direct control over the colony. The company had also been involved in various corruption scandals and mismanagement and had been criticised for its oppressive policies towards the Indian population. The East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act was therefore passed as part of a broader process of transferring power from the British East India Company to the British government and ultimately to the government of India. It was believed the transfer would help the British government have better control over the colony, eliminate the company’s corruption, and implement policies that were more beneficial to the Indian population.
The transfer of power from the British East India Company to the British government was intended to provide better control over the colony of India. The British government had more resources and a more centralised decision-making structure than the company, which would have allowed for a more efficient and effective administration of the colony. However, it’s important to note that British rule in India was not without challenges and criticisms. Some argue that British colonial rule led to economic exploitation of India, cultural suppression, and social injustice. The British government’s policies and actions also led to widespread poverty, famines, and other issues that affected the lives of many Indians. The transfer of power from the company to the British government may have allowed for better control over India, but it did not necessarily lead to better outcomes for the Indian people.
The company’s misrule and exploitation in Bengal and other parts of India, as well as the massive famine that occurred in 1770, led to a decline in its revenue and financial stability, forcing it to appeal to the British government for an emergency loan to avoid bankruptcy. Whilst the British government bailed out the company, in exchange for which the company was subject to increased government oversight and regulation.
In 1773, the British government passed the Regulating Act, which established a system of government oversight and control over the company’s activities in India. That Act established a Governor-General and a Council of Four in India to oversee the company’s affairs and to report to the British government. It also provided for the appointment of a Governor-General and four councillors (who were to be chosen from among the company’s directors) to exercise the company’s civil and military powers in India.
In 1784, the British government passed the India Act, which further restructured the governance of the company’s territories in India and expanded the role of the British government in the administration of India. The act established a Board of Control with the power to oversee and direct the company’s affairs in India and to control the company’s trade and territorial acquisitions. Additionally, the act ended the company’s trading monopoly and opened India’s economy to other British merchants, further reducing the company’s power.
The British East India Company was seen as an instrument of British imperialism in India, allowing the British government to establish political control over India through the company’s territorial and economic expansion. The Company’s rule in India lasted until 1858, when the British government took control of India after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Government of India Act of 1858.
The British East India Company’s monopoly in India was eventually challenged by the British government in the late 1700s following growing public concern about the company’s immense power. The British government finally took control of India in 1858 and dissolved the company in 1874.
When the company was wound up, its assets were transferred to the British government. The British government then appointed a liquidator to oversee the process of selling off the assets and distributing the proceeds among the company’s creditors. The liquidation process took several years to complete. The British government assumed control of the company’s Indian territories and established the British Raj. The EIC’s commercial functions were also transferred to the Crown, and the British government took over the administration of India.
How were the shareholders excluded?
The company’s shareholders were not given any direct compensation for the loss of their investments. Instead, the company’s assets were used to pay off its creditors, and any remaining funds were turned over to the British government. The shareholders were not involved in the liquidation process and had no say in how the assets were sold or distributed. The shareholders were not given any direct compensation for the loss of their investments. They were considered general creditors.
Was Fraud Involved?
The winding up of the company and the exclusion of shareholders from the liquidation process can be seen as a form of corporate fraud, as the shareholders were not compensated for the loss of their investments. However, it is important to note that the decision to wind up the company and transfer its assets to the British government was made by the British government, not by the company itself. Additionally, the company had been facing significant financial difficulties, and the government likely believed that taking control of the company’s assets was necessary to stabilize the situation. It is also important to note that the British East India Company was a private company and the British government had a significant influence on its operations and decision-making. Also, the company was a colonial enterprise, so it wasn’t a typical company. It was said that the winding up of the company was a political decision rather than a fraudulent or commercial one.
Did shareholders challenge it?
It is known that the dissolution of the company caused significant financial losses to its shareholders, which was a controversial move at the time. The decision resulted in the British government taking control of the company’s Indian territories and establishing the British Raj. Some shareholders may have expressed their dissatisfaction or even filed complaints to the government, but such information has not emerged publicly. It’s also possible that the shareholders may not have had many legal remedies available to them at the time, given the company’s unique status as a colonial enterprise and the government’s significant influence on its operations.
Image Credit: The Grand Union Flag, 1775
Attribution: Hoshie, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_United_States_(1776%E2%80%931777).svg
The British East India Company had flags used as a way of identifying their ships and claiming ownership. The flags were also used to communicate with other ships and signal their intentions.
Flags were an important part of naval communication, and ships would fly different flags to indicate their nationality, status, or intended actions. For example, a ship flying a flag of truce would signal its desire to negotiate, while a ship flying a red flag would signal that it intended to engage in combat.
The company had several different flags that it used for different purposes. The most common flag was the company’s flag, which was a red flag with the company’s initials in white. The company’s flag was flown on all of its ships, indicating that the ship was under the protection of the company.
The company also had other flags for different purposes, such as a blue flag with a white cross flown on ships carrying the Governor-General or the Governor of a Presidency, and a yellow flag, flown on ships carrying treasure.
Overall, the British East India Company is widely seen as one of the most powerful and controversial companies ever and played a major role in shaping the history of British colonialism and the modern world. In its time, it was the largest commercial enterprise in British history, with its roots in Elizabethan times. It controlled half the world’s trade and a quarter of its people. The company changed the way Europeans dressed and what they ate and drank. Its actions and legacy continue to be debated and studied by historians, economists and political scientists.
The British East India Company’s actions have been widely criticised for its exploitative and abusive practices, particularly in India and China. The company’s role in the opium trade and opium wars with China is also widely regarded as one of the most egregious examples of drug-induced imperialism. On the other hand, some historians argue that the company played a crucial role in developing global trade and spreading Western influence. The company’s actions and legacy continue to be debated and studied by historians, economists and political scientists.
Sources and Further Reading
- Royal Museums Greenwich: https://www.rmg.co.uk/collections/research-guides/research-guide-f5-east-india-company
- Picturing India: People, Places and the World of the East India Company, by John McAleer, published by British Library Publishing (17 August 2017), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Picturing-India-People-Places-Company/dp/0712356959/
- The East India Company: A History From Beginning to End (The East India Companies), by Hourly History (2 May 2019), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/East-India-Company-Beginning-Companies/dp/1096614820/
- The East India Company: A Captivating Guide to the English Company That Was Created for the Exploitation of Trade with East and Southeast Asia and India (Exploring India’s Past), by Captivating History (23 January 2020), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/East-India-Company-Captivating-Exploitation/dp/1647483824/
- Armies of the East India Company 1750-1850: No. 453 (Men-at-Arms), by Stuart Reid and Gerry Embleton, published by Osprey Publishing (10 August 2009), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Armies-India-Company-1750-1850-Men-at-Arms/dp/1846034604/
- Adventurers: The Improbable Rise of the East India Company: 1550-1650, by David Howarth, published by Yale University Press (24 January 2023), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Adventurers-Improbable-India-Company-1550-1650/dp/030025072X/
- The Business of Empire: The East India Company and Imperial Britain, 1756–1833, by H. V. Bowen, published by Cambridge University Press (13 June 2014), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Business-Empire-Company-Imperial-1756-1833/dp/0521844770/
- The Corporation That Changed the World: How the East India Company Shaped the Modern Multinational, by Nick Robins, published by Pluto Press (20 October 2012), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Corporation-That-Changed-World-Multinational-dp-0745331955/
- The East India Company: Trade and Conquest from 1600, by Antony Wild, published by The Lyons Press (1 February 2000), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/East-India-Company-Trade-Conquest/dp/1585740594
- The Worlds of the East India Company, by H.V. Bowen, Margarette Lincoln, et al., published by Boydell Press (19 February 2015), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Worlds-East-India-Company/dp/1843830736/
- The British in India: Three Centuries of Ambition and Experience, by David Gilmour, published by Penguin (1 August 2019), available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/British-India-Centuries-Ambition-Experience/dp/0141979216/
- The company that once owned India is now owned by an Indian (East India Company), at: https://youtu.be/pDXccMsTlL0
- East India Company became so powerful because British Parliament colluded with it: William Dalrymple, at: https://youtu.be/KJHXx6bdsAI
- The East India Company and the rise of Empire, at: https://youtu.be/5Hp-tK2cArI
- The Origins of the British East India Company, at: https://youtu.be/PgcjJhJEpPw
- The East India Company, at: https://youtu.be/p3vH4o7LEmU
- The East India Company (400 Years: Britain & India – Episode 1), at: https://youtu.be/NPVLr4Np0jA
- Dan Snow: The Birth of Empire: The East India Company, at: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt4321052/
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End Notes and Explanations
- Source: Machine-generated information Artificial Intelligence at https://chat.openai.com ↑
- Source: https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/evolutionofparliament/legislativescrutiny/parliament-and-empire/parliament-and-the-american-colonies-before-1765/east-india-company-and-raj-1785-1858/ ↑
- Source: Dalrymple, William (2020). The Anarchy – The Relentless Rise of the East India Company. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. xxxv (Introduction). ISBN 9781526634016. ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Sources: (1) Wilbur, Marguerite Eyer (1945). The East India Company: And the British Empire in the Far East. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8047-28645, and (2) “East Indies: September 1599”. british-history.ac.uk. ↑
- Source: “East Indies: September 1599”. british-history.ac.uk ↑
- Source: United Service Magazine – and Naval and Military Journal (1875 – Part III). London: Hursett and Blackett. 1875. p. 148 (History of the Indian Navy) ↑
- Source: “Early European Settlements”. Archived copy. Imperial Gazetteer of India. Vol. II. 1908. p. 454. ↑
- Source: The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Vol. II: The Indian Empire, Historical. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1908. p. 455. ↑
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- Source: Timbs, John (1855). Curiosities of London: Exhibiting the Most Rare and Remarkable Objects of Interest in the Metropolis. D. Bogue. p. 264. ↑
- Source: https://www.britannica.com/story/5-fast-facts-about-the-east-india-company ↑
- Source: Mukherjee, Mithi (2005). “Justice, War, and the Imperium: India and Britain in Edmund Burke’s Prosecutorial Speeches in the Impeachment Trial of Warren Hastings” (PDF). Law and History Review. ↑
- Source: Mukherjee, Mithi (2005). “Justice, War, and the Imperium: India and Britain in Edmund Burke’s Prosecutorial Speeches in the Impeachment Trial of Warren Hastings” (PDF). Law and History Review. ↑