This paper is about the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture. You may not be familiar with it, and I hope you find it interesting. The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture (also known as the Tripolye culture) is a Neolithic–Chalcolithic archaeological culture (c. 5500 to 2750 BC) of Eastern Europe. The ancient civilisation flourished in what is now Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania and is notable for its advanced technology, sophisticated art, and large, well-planned settlements, and is sometimes referred to as the first European civilisation due to its early development. They were one of the earliest known examples of urbanisation and had a population exceeding one million.
The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture is named after two archaeological sites where artefacts from this civilisation were first discovered: Cucuteni in Romania and Trypillia in Ukraine. These two sites, along with many others throughout the region, have provided evidence of a highly developed society with a complex social organisation and a sophisticated understanding of agriculture and ceramics.
Cucuteni–Trypillian culture – Collection of National History Museum of Moldova
Attribution: Cristian Chirita, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cucuteni_IMG_3697.JPG
This ancient civilisation extended from the Carpathian Mountains to the Dniester and Dnieper regions, centred on modern-day Moldova and covering substantial parts of western Ukraine and northeastern Romania, encompassing an area of 350,000 km (140,000 sq mi) with a diameter of 500 km (300 mi; roughly from Kyiv in the northeast to Brașov in the southwest).
Most of the Cucuteni–Trypillia settlements were of small size, high density (spaced 3 to 4 kilometres apart), concentrated mainly in the Siret, Prut and Dniester river valleys. During its middle phase (c. 4000 to 3500 BC), Cucuteni–Trypillia culture populations built the largest settlements in Neolithic Europe, some of which contained as many as three thousand structures and were possibly inhabited by 20,000 to 46,000 people.
One of this culture’s most notable, and even strange, aspects was the periodic destruction of settlements, with each single-habitation site lasting roughly 60 to 80 years. The purpose of burning these settlements is the subject of ongoing debate among scholars:
- Some of the settlements were reconstructed several times on top of earlier habitational levels, preserving the shape and the orientation of the older buildings.
- One location, the Poduri site in Romania, revealed thirteen habitation levels constructed on top of each other over many years.
One of the most notable features of this culture was their practice of burning down their settlements regularly. The exact reasons for this practice are not fully understood, but there are plenty of theories put forward by archaeologists and historians:
- One theory is that burning their homes was a deliberate act of ritual cleansing or purification to rid the community of evil spirits or negative energies. This theory is supported by evidence that the settlements were often rebuilt on the same sites after being burned, suggesting that the practice was part of a cyclical pattern of renewal.
- Another theory is that clearing the land and creating fertile agricultural soil was a practical measure. The ash from the burned structures could be spread over the fields, providing nutrients that would help crops to grow. This theory is supported by evidence that the Cucuteni-Trypillian were skilled farmers who cultivated various crops, including wheat, barley, and millet.
- A third theory is that the burning was a defensive measure to prevent enemy raiders from using the settlements as a base of operations. By burning their homes and crops, the Cucuteni-Trypillian may have been depriving raiders of resources and shelter, making it more difficult for them to mount attacks.
A combination of these factors and others likely played a role in the Cucuteni-Trypillian’s practice of deliberate burning. Whatever the reasons, the regular burning of settlements was a distinctive feature of this culture and has fascinated historians and archaeologists for ages.
Picture Credit: Interior reconstruction of a Cucuteni-Trypillian house in the Archaeology Museum Piatra Neamț, Romania.
Attribution: CristianChirita, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CucuteniInteriorReconstruction.JPG
In 1884 a Romanian musician, Teodor T. Burada, after having seen ceramic fragments in the gravel used to maintain the road from Târgu Frumos to Iași, investigated the quarry in Cucuteni from where the material was mined. He found fragments of pottery and terracotta figurines near the village of Cucuteni, Iași County, which led to the discovery of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture.
From 1893 to 1903, the first Ukrainian sites ascribed to the culture were discovered by Vikentiy Khvoyka, a pioneering Ukrainian archaeologist of Czech origin. He found ancient ruins near the village of Trypillia in the Obukhiv District of central Ukraine’s Kyiv Oblast.
Despite the impressive achievements of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, relatively little is known about their language or religious beliefs. It is thought that they worshipped a fertility goddess, as many of their artefacts depict female figures with exaggerated sexual characteristics. Some researchers believe their religion may have influenced later pagan religions in Europe. Despite lacking formal religious or political structures, they built large settlements and organised their society in a way that allowed them to thrive for several thousand years.
Temple at Nebelivka
There is evidence of a temple at Nebelivka, located in modern-day Ukraine, which dates back to the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture period. It was discovered in the 1970s and was built around 4000 BC. The temple was located in a settlement that covered about 40 hectares, and it was one of the largest structures in the area, measuring around 15 metres in diameter. The temple was constructed from wood and clay, with several rooms and an open courtyard. It is believed to have been a centre for religious and social activities and may have been used for ceremonies, rituals, and gatherings.
Picture Credit: Bird Goddesses – Piatra Neamt Museum.
Attribution: CristianChirita, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CucutenibirdGoddess.JPG
The discovery of the Nebelivka temple provides valuable insights into the religious practices of Cucuteni-Trypillia culture. However, it should be noted that it is the only temple of its kind found so far. Most of what we know about the culture’s religious practices comes from the artefacts and symbols unearthed in their settlements and burials.
The study of the religion and ritual of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture has provided important insights into the early history of Europe. The culture left behind many settlement ruins that contain archaeological artefacts attesting to their cultural and technological characteristics.
Religious artefacts from domestic homes and sacred sanctuaries, some intentionally buried within the sanctuary, provide evidence of the society’s beliefs, rituals, and social structure. Some are clay figurines or statues, many of which archaeologists have identified as akin to fetishes or totems, and are believed to be imbued with powers that could help and protect the people who care for them. Many clay figurines have been discovered at Cucuteni–Trypillia sites, and many museums in eastern Europe host sizable collections of them. Popularly but inaccurately known as “goddesses”, the figurines have become a recognisable visual marker of the culture.
Picture Credit: Exposition of the National Museum of History of Ukraine. Cucuteni-Typillia ceramic vessel
Attribution: Star61, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.
Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archaeological_finds_in_National_Museum_of_the_History_of_Ukraine_02.jpg
The origins of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture are not entirely clear, but it is believed that they were an indigenous culture that emerged in the region of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine. Some scholars have suggested that they may have been influenced by earlier cultures in the area, such as the Linear Pottery culture, the Vinča culture, and the Boian culture from the south.
One of the most striking features of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture is their pottery, renowned for its elaborate designs and intricate shapes. The pottery shows a diversity of styles and forms across different regions and periods.
Cucuteni-Trypillia pottery is a type of ceramic art produced by an ancient culture that existed in Eastern Europe from about 5500 to 2750 BC. The pottery was hand-made from local clay using coiling techniques and decorated with various patterns and motifs. The pottery reflects the culture’s advanced technology, artistic skills and symbolic system. It can be divided into several stages based on chronological and typological criteria. The earliest stage is called Pre-Cucuteni/Trypillia A, followed by Cucuteni/Trypillia A, B, C1, C2 and D. Each stage has its own distinctive features and influences. One special type of pottery is called Cucuteni C pottery, which appeared under the influence of the Serednii Stig Culture. These terms can be explained as follows:
- Pre-Cucuteni/Trypillia A: The formative stage of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture influenced by other Neolithic cultures from the north and south.
- Cucuteni/Trypillia A: The first stage of development of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture is characterised by painted pottery and large settlements.
- Cucuteni/Trypillia B: The second stage of development of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture that saw an expansion of settlements and trade networks.
- Cucuteni/Trypillia C1: The third stage of development of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture that witnessed a decline in population and settlement size.
- Cucuteni/Trypillia C2: The fourth stage of development of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture that experienced a revival of population and settlement size, as well as new influences from other cultures.
- Cucuteni/Trypillia D: The final stage of development of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture that marked its gradual disappearance due to various factors such as climate change, migrations, wars, etc.
- Cucuteni C pottery: A special type of pottery that appeared under the influence of the Serednii Stig Culture, another Neolithic culture in Eastern Europe. It had distinctive shapes and decorations, such as incised lines and dots.
- Serednii Stig Culture: A Neolithic culture in Eastern Europe from about 4500 to 3500 BC. It was named after a site near the Dnipro river in Ukraine.
Cucuteni-Trypillia pottery used visual art concepts such as repeating circles or spirals. The pottery was often painted with red, white and black colours and depicted geometric patterns, animals, plants and human figures. The pottery also showed a strong influence of female symbolism, such as goddesses, breasts and vulvas.
Besides pottery, Cucuteni-Trypillia art also included other forms of expression, such as figurines, textiles, ornaments and architecture. The figurines were mostly made of clay or bone and represented animals or humans, whilst textiles were woven from wool or flax and dyed with natural colours. The ornaments were made of shells, beads, copper or gold. The architecture was based on circular or rectangular houses that were often burned intentionally for unknown reasons.
- Cucuteni-Trypillia art has been compared to a similar culture in China called Yangshao, which also produced similar pottery and art. Cucuteni-Trypillia art has also inspired some modern artists and designers who have used its motifs and symbols in their works.
- Cucuteni-Trypillia paintings are mostly found on their pottery, but some examples of wall paintings have also been discovered. The paintings used red, white and black colours and depicted geometric patterns, animals, plants and human figures. Like pottery, paintings also showed a strong influence of female symbolism.
- Cucuteni-Trypillia jewellery was made of shells, beads, copper or gold. The jewellery was often worn as necklaces, bracelets, earrings or rings. The jewellery also had symbolic meanings, such as protection, fertility or status.
Cucuteni-Trypillia paintings and jewellery have inspired some modern artists and designers who have used their motifs and symbols in their works. For example, Ukrainian designer Svitlana Bevza has created a line of clothing and jewellery that celebrates the culture’s reverence toward women and its connection to nature.
The Cucuteni-Trypillia people were skilled farmers, and evidence suggests that they practised crop rotation and irrigation to maximise their agricultural output. Their settlements were often sited on fertile land, and some were fortified with walls or ditches for defence.
Their tools and implements included stone tools such as axes, hoes, sickles, knives, and arrowheads. They also made pottery with elaborate designs and shapes.
They cooked their food using clay ovens or hearths inside their houses. As previously mentioned, they also burned their homes periodically for unknown reasons.
Farming was an important part of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture. They were one of the earliest agricultural societies in Europe and practised a form of agriculture using a hoe rather than a plough. They also practised slash-and-burn agriculture, which involved clearing land by cutting down trees and burning them, producing fertile soil for farming.
The Cucuteni-Trypillia people grew various crops, including wheat, barley, peas, lentils, legumes and flax. They also raised animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The animals were used for food, as well as for their milk, wool, and hides.
The farming practices of the Cucuteni-Trypillia people were very advanced for their time. They used a three-field system, which involved rotating crops between three fields to keep the soil fertile. They also used irrigation to water their crops, which allowed them to grow crops in areas that were normally too dry for farming.
The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture declined around 2750 BC for unknown reasons. However, their farming practices had a lasting impact on the region, and their agricultural techniques were passed down to later civilisations in the area.
In addition to their impressive artistic and agricultural skills, the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture was also advanced in metallurgy and weaving. They produced copper ornaments and tools and also wove intricate textiles, often using plant fibres like flax and hemp:
- The Cucuteni-Trypillia people produced a variety of other objects using their metallurgy and weaving skills. For example, they made pottery decorated with intricate designs and sometimes incorporated metal or textile elements. They also produced wooden objects, such as furniture and tools, that were sometimes decorated with metal or textile accents.
- The Cucuteni-Trypillia people used various techniques to produce copper objects, including casting, hammering, and engraving. They made multiple items, from simple tools like axes and knives to ornate jewellery and figurines.
- The textiles produced by the Cucuteni-Trypillia people were often decorated with intricate patterns and designs. Several weaving techniques were used, including twining and plaiting, often combined with different materials to create complex textiles. For example, they sometimes wove plant fibres with wool or animal hair to create fabrics with different textures and properties.
The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture was notable for its egalitarian social structure, with little evidence of social stratification or significant disparities in wealth or power. This contrasts with many other early civilisations, which were often marked by hierarchies and inequalities.
The lack of social hierarchy in the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture is evident from the archaeological records. Unlike many other ancient societies, there is little evidence of large monumental architecture, such as palaces or temples, that would suggest the existence of a ruling class. Instead, the culture is characterised by many smaller settlements, suggesting a more dispersed and decentralised form of social organisation.
There is also little evidence of significant disparities in wealth or power. For example, there are few examples of extravagant burial practices or grave goods that would suggest a substantial difference in social status. Additionally, while some objects, such as pottery and metalwork, are more elaborately decorated than others, there is little evidence that these objects were reserved for a particular social class.
The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture’s relatively egalitarian social structure may have been related to their subsistence economy, based primarily on agriculture and animal husbandry. In such an economy, wealth and power are less easily accumulated than in societies based on trade or tribute. Additionally, the relatively flat topography of the region they lived in may have made it difficult to establish a centralised authority.
While the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture was not entirely without social hierarchy, it is notable for its relative lack of social stratification and the absence of clear markers of significant disparities in wealth or power.
Source of Knowledge
Several historians and archaeologists have extensively researched the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, and their work has contributed greatly to our understanding of this ancient civilisation. Here are some of the most notable:
- Marija Gimbutas: A Lithuanian-American archaeologist and scholar known for her research on the prehistoric cultures of Europe. She is considered one of the foremost experts on the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture.
- John Chapman: An archaeologist who researched the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, with a particular focus on their pottery and architecture.
- Dragos Gheorghiu: A Romanian archaeologist who conducted significant research on the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, including excavations at several major sites.
- Pavel Dolukhanov: A Russian archaeologist who conducted research on the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, with a focus on their agricultural practices and environmental impact.
- V. M. Masson: A Ukrainian archaeologist who was one of the first researchers to study the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture in depth, has contributed significantly to understanding their society and culture.
These are just a few of the many historians and archaeologists who have studied the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, and their work provides an understanding of this fascinating civilisation.
Although the regions of Moldova, Ukraine, and Romania are geographically distant from one another, archaeologists and experts have identified a shared cultural and material heritage among the people who lived in these areas during the Neolithic period.
The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture is recognised as a distinct cultural complex based on several factors, including similarities in their pottery styles, figurines, and other artefacts, as well as their settlement patterns and social organisation. Archaeologists have also found evidence of long-distance trade and exchange networks, suggesting that there was communication and interaction between different communities across the region.
In addition to the material remains, archaeologists also study the distribution patterns of artefacts across different sites to understand better the social and economic relationships among the people who produced them. They also analyse environmental data and human remains to reconstruct aspects of daily life, including diet, health, and social structure.
Several museums are dedicated to the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, particularly in the countries where the civilisation was centred: Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine. Here are a few examples:
- The Cucuteni Museum (Muzeul de Istorie “Paul Păltănea” Cucuteni) in Cucuteni, Romania, is a museum dedicated to the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture. It houses a large collection of artefacts from the site and provides visitors with a detailed history of the civilisation.
- The Trypillian Culture Museum (Muzeul Culturii Tripilski) in Trypillia, Ukraine, is a museum that focuses on the Trypillian culture, which was a subgroup of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture. The museum features reconstructed houses and displays of artefacts from the site.
- The National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova (Muzeul Național de Istorie și Arheologie din Moldova) in Chișinău, Moldova, has a large collection of artefacts from the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, as well as exhibits on other prehistoric and historical cultures of the region.
- The National Museum of Romanian History (Muzeul Național de Istorie a României) in Bucharest, Romania, has a significant collection of artefacts from the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, including pottery, figurines, and tools.
These are a few of many museums that showcase the rich history and culture of the Cucuteni-Trypillia civilisation. Visiting these museums can provide a fascinating insight into this ancient civilisation and its contributions to human history.
The origins of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture are not entirely clear, but it is believed that they were an indigenous culture that emerged in the region of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine. Some scholars have suggested that they may have been influenced by earlier cultures in the area, such as the Linear Pottery culture or the Vinča culture.
Similarly, no evidence exists of kings, rulers or a centralised political authority in the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture. Instead, it is believed that the society was organised into extended families or clans, with each group controlling a certain amount of land and resources.
Here are some key facts about the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture:
- Settlements: The people of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture lived in large settlements with sophisticated infrastructure, including multi-room houses, public buildings, and defensive walls.
- Agriculture: Agriculture was a key part of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture. They grew various crops, including wheat, barley, peas, and lentils. The people used sophisticated techniques such as crop rotation and the use of manure to improve soil fertility. They also used irrigation to help manage water resources in areas with limited rainfall.
- Pottery: The people of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture are known for their distinctive pottery, often featuring intricate geometric designs and bright colours. Some pottery was used for cooking and storage, while others may have had religious or ceremonial purposes.
- Art: The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture also produced a variety of other art, including figurines made of clay and stone, as well as jewellery made of bone and shell.
- Skills: The people of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture were skilled in various crafts, including pottery making, weaving, and metalworking. They also had knowledge of carpentry and construction, which is evidenced by their well-built homes and public structures.
- Family life: The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture was likely organised around extended families, with several generations living together in the same household. Archaeological evidence suggests that the people placed a strong emphasis on the family unit and the care of children.
- Education: There is no direct evidence of formal education in the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, but knowledge was likely passed down through families and communities. The skill required to create intricate pottery and other crafts suggests there was a system of apprenticeship in place.
- Faiths: Little is known about the religious beliefs of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture. They created figurines and idols, which may have been used in religious ceremonies. There is no clear evidence of many temples or formal religious structures in the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, although some artefacts suggest they may have had a polytheistic religion. It is likely that religious practices were centred around the household or community rather than in formal religious institutions.
- Language: It is not known what language the people of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture spoke, as no written records have been found. However, some scholars have suggested that they may have spoken a language related to the Indo-European family of languages.
Whilst the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture did not have a writing system, we know about its existence and have learned more about it by studying its material remains and other archaeological evidence, such as pottery, tools, and other artefacts. In addition, the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture is defined by a specific chronological period and a set of shared practices and traditions that distinguish it from different contemporary cultures. Moreover, the communities living in Moldova, Ukraine, and Romania during the Neolithic period may have had their own unique characteristics and variations, they were united by a larger cultural complex that is now recognised as the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture.
- Despite the lack of a writing system, the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture did leave behind some forms of symbolic communication. For example, they created a distinctive style of pottery that often featured complex designs and patterns, which may have had symbolic or cultural significance. Some of these designs are believed to depict animals, plants, or other elements of the natural world.
- The lack of a writing system can make it challenging for archaeologists to understand the specifics of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture’s beliefs, traditions, and social structures. However, studying material remains can still provide valuable insights into these areas. For example, the layout of settlements, the types of objects found in different regions, and the patterns of trade and exchange can all offer clues about the culture’s social organisation and economic systems.
- The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture was not a monolithic entity but rather a complex of related communities that shared certain cultural traits. Within this complex, there were likely significant variations in social structure, economic systems, and religious beliefs. Some scholars have suggested that these variations may have contributed to the ultimate decline of the culture.
- Ongoing research into the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture continues to shed new light on its history and significance. For example, recent archaeological discoveries have revealed further information about the culture’s economic systems, craft production, and ritual practices. As researchers continue to explore this rich and fascinating period of history, our understanding of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture is likely to evolve and expand.
The Cucuteni-Trypillia pioneered the concept of the city as we know it. They built settlements that were so advanced and so vast that perhaps they invented civilisation itself. Yet, they went into steep decline, and only bare traces remain. The decline of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture is still poorly understood, but it is thought to be related to a combination of environmental factors, such as drought and soil depletion, as well as social and economic changes. By the end of the 3rd millennium BC, the culture had largely disappeared, leaving behind a rich legacy of art, technology, and cultural achievements that continue to fascinate scholars and historians today.
Some theories suggest that environmental factors such as deforestation and over-farming may have played a role, while others point to social and political changes. The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture is significant because of its advanced settlements, agriculture, and art and its influence on later cultures in the region.
The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture was a sophisticated and advanced society that contributed to developing agriculture, crafts, and art in the region. Their legacy is still evident in the customs and traditions of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine. It is worth noting, however, that the extent and nature of this cultural complex is still a subject of ongoing research and debate among scholars, and new discoveries and insights may continue to reshape our understanding of this period of history.
Sources and Further Reading
- Anthropomorphic Representations in the Cucuteni-Tripolye Culture, by Dan Monah, published by Archaeopress Archaeology (2015), at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Anthropomorphic-Representations-Cucuteni-Tripolye-Culture-Monah/dp/1784912328
- The Cucuteni-Tripolye Culture, by Linda Ellis, published by British Archaeological Reports (1984), at: https://www.waterstones.com/book/the-cucuteni-tripolye-culture/linda-ellis/9780860542797
- Sign Systems of Trypillia-Cucuteni Culture, by Oleksandr Melnyk and Taras Tkachuk, published by Kindle Edition (2021), at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/SYSTEMS-TRYPILLIA-CUCUTENI-CULTURE-Oleksandr-Melnyk-ebook/dp/B093FSRCNW
- The Lost World of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000-3500 BC, by David W. Anthony and Jennifer Y. Chi, published by Princeton University Press (2009), at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Lost-World-Old-Europe-Danube/dp/0691143889
- The Archaeology of Cult: The Sanctuary at Phylakopi, by Colin Renfrew, published by Thames & Hudson Ltd (1985), https://www.waterstones.com/book/the-archaeology-of-cult/colin-renfrew/9780500390221
- The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe: Myths and Cult Images, by Marija Gimbutas, published by the University of California Press (1982), https://www.amazon.co.uk/Goddesses-Gods-Old-Europe-Marija/dp/0520046552
- Cucuteni-Trypillia Culture | Ancient European Civilisation, by Dan Davis History, at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bk2Qbf1YQbI
- The Mysterious Culture of Cucuteni Trypillian, by Mystery History, at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AgY4SMheKlY
- Trypillia: 7000-year-old civilisation silenced by communists, by BBC Reel, https://www.bbc.com/reel/video/p09kw6r2/trypillia-7000-year-old-civilisation-silenced-by-communists
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End Notes and Explanations
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- Source: Monah, Dan (2005), “Religie si arta in cultura Cucuteni” [Religion and art in Cucuteni culture], in Dumitroaia, Gheorghe (ed.), Primul muzeu Cucuteni din Romania [The first Cucuteni museum for Romania], Bibliotheca memoriae antiquitatis XV (in Romanian), Piatra-Neamț, Romania: Editura Foton, pp. 162–173, OCLC 319165024. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni–Trypillia_culture ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Source: Mallory, James P (1989). In search of the Indo-Europeans: language, archaeology and myth. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05052X OCLC 246601873. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_and_ritual_of_the_Cucuteni%E2%80%93Trypillia_culture ↑
- Explanation: The Linear Pottery culture (LBK) is a major archaeological horison of the European Neolithic period, flourishing c. 5500–4500 BC. Derived from the German Linearbandkeramik, it is also known as the Linear Band Ware, Linear Ware, Linear Ceramics or Incised Ware culture, falling within the Danubian I culture of V. Gordon Childe. Most cultural evidence has been found on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, and the upper and middle Rhine. It represents a major event in the initial spread of agriculture in Europe. The pottery consists of simple cups, bowls, vases, jugs without handles and, in a later phase, with pierced lugs, bases, and necks. Important sites include Vrable and Nitra in Slovakia; Bylany in the Czech Republic; Langweiler and Zwenkau (Eythra) in Germany; Brunn am Gebirge in Austria; Elsloo, Sittard, Köln-Lindenthal, Aldenhoven, Flomborn, and Rixheim on the Rhine; Lautereck and Hienheim on the upper Danube; and Rössen and Sonderhausen on the middle Elbe. In 2019, two large Rondel complexes were discovered east of the Vistula River near Toruń in Poland. A number of cultures ultimately replaced the Linear Pottery culture over its range, but without a one-to-one correspondence between its variants and the replacing cultures. Some of the successor cultures are the Hinkelstein, Großgartach, Rössen, Lengyel, Cucuteni-Trypillian, and Boian-Maritza cultures. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_Pottery_culture ↑
- Explanation: The Vinča culture, also known as Turdaș culture, Turdaș–Vinča culture or Vinča-Turdaș culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture of Southeast Europe, dated to the period 5700–4500 BC or 5300–4700/4500 BC. Named for its type site, Vinča-Belo Brdo, a large tell settlement discovered by Serbian archaeologist Miloje Vasić in 1908, it represents the material remains of a prehistoric society mainly distinguished by its settlement pattern and ritual behaviour. Farming technology first introduced to the region during the First Temperate Neolithic was developed further by the Vinča culture, fuelling a population boom and producing some of the largest settlements in prehistoric Europe. These settlements maintained a high degree of cultural uniformity through the long-distance exchange of ritual items, but were probably not politically unified. Various styles of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines are hallmarks of the culture, as are the Vinča symbols, which some conjecture to be the earliest form of proto-writing. Although not conventionally considered part of the Chalcolithic or “Copper Age”, the Vinča culture provides the earliest known example of copper smelting in the Old World. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vin%C4%8Da_culture Sources: (1) Suciu, Cosmin Ioan (2011). “Early Vinča Culture Dynamic in South-Eastern Transylvania”. In Mills, Steve; Mirea, Pavel (eds.). The Lower Danube in Prehistory: Landscape Changes and Human-Environment Interactions. Bucharest: Editura Renaissance. pp. 75–86. ISBN 978-606-8321-01-1. (2) Perić, Slaviša (June 2017). “Drenovac: a Neolithic settlement in the Middle Morava Valley, Serbia”. Antiquity. 91 (357). (3) Chapman, John (2000). p. 239. Fragmentation in Archaeology: People, Places, and Broken Objects. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-15803-9. (4) Radivojević, Miljana; Rehren, Thilo; Pernicka, Ernst; Šljivar, Dušan; Brauns, Michael; Borić, Dušan (1 November 2010). “On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe”. Journal of Archaeological Science. 37 (11): 2775–2787. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.012. ISSN 0305-4403. ↑
- Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni%E2%80%93Trypillia_culture ↑
- Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni%E2%80%93Trypillia_culture, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Trypillya-culture, https://bioone.org/journals/Human-Biology/volume-87/issue-3/humanbiology.87.3.0235/Productivity-of-Premodern-Agriculture-in-the-CucuteniTrypillia-Area/10.13110/humanbiology.87.3.0235.short, and https://www.bbc.com/travel/article/20210805-cucuteni-trypillia-eastern-europes-lost-civilisation ↑
- Explanation: The Serednii Stig Culture, also known as the Sredny Stog Culture, is an archaeological culture that existed during the Neolithic period in Eastern Europe, specifically in what is now Ukraine and southern Russia. The culture is named after the Serednii Stig river, a tributary of the Dnieper river, which flows through the region where the culture was first identified. The Serednii Stig Culture is known for its distinctive burial practices, which involved burying the dead in flat graves, often with offerings such as pottery, stone tools, and animal bones. The culture is also known for its use of domesticated horses, which were used for transportation, food, and possibly even warfare. The culture is believed to have emerged around 4500 BC and lasted until around 3500 BC, although the exact dates are still subject to debate among archaeologists. The Serednii Stig Culture is considered an important precursor to the Yamnaya culture, which emerged in the same region a few centuries later and is believed to have been closely related to the early Indo-European cultures. Source: https://chat.openai.com/chat ↑
- Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni%E2%80%93Trypillia_culture ↑
- Source: https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-europe/cucuteni-trypillian-002807 ↑
- Source: Ibid ↑