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The story about to unfold is about Aethelflaed, the oldest daughter of King Alfred the Great and the sister of King Edward the Elder.

Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians, was a prominent figure in Anglo-Saxon England and played a significant role in the nation’s unification. There are gaps in the historical record regarding her life and exploits, but I will provide you with an overview of what is known about her.

Aethelflaed was likely born in the late 9th century AD, although the exact year of her birth is uncertain. She may have been educated at the convent school at Wilton or at Winchester, both of which were royal residences, and despite excelling in academic studies, she was inclined towards a military life from an early age[2]. She grew up during a tumultuous period when Viking invasions and settlements posed a threat to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. King Alfred, her father, played a crucial role in defending Wessex against the Vikings and promoting the development of a unified English identity.

Caption: Æthelflæd in the thirteenth-century Genealogical Chronicle of the English Kings, British Library Royal MS 14 B V.
Attribution: British Library, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

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When King Alfred died in 899 AD, Aethelflaed’s brother, Edward, ascended to the throne as King Edward the Elder. Aethelflaed married Aethelred, the Lord of the Mercians. Together, they jointly ruled Mercia, with Aethelflaed playing an active role in governing the kingdom.

Some clarity is required: Aethelflaed and Aethelred’s parts were more akin to high-ranking nobility within the Kingdom of Mercia. Aethelred held the title of Lord of the Mercians, which made him a powerful regional ruler under the overall authority of King Edward. Aethelflaed, as Aethelred’s wife, likely had significant influence and played an active role in governing Mercia alongside him.


Picture Credit: A series of maps that illustrate the increasing hegemony of Mercia during the 8th century.
Attribution: Hel-Hama, CC BY-SA 3.0 <;, via Wikimedia Commons

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The area of England, known as Mercia, has already been mentioned a few times above. It may be a good idea to say where it is or was.

Mercia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom that existed in what is now central England during the Early Medieval period[3]. It encompassed a substantial portion of present-day England, covering regions such as the Midlands, East Anglia, and parts of the North.

The name “Mercia” is believed to have derived from the Old English word “Mierce” or “Myrce,” meaning “border” or “boundary.” The kingdom’s location, situated as a borderland between other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, likely influenced its name.

Mercia emerged as a significant kingdom under the reign of King Penda in the 7th century and reached its height of power and influence during the 8th and 9th centuries. It was a dominant force in the region for several centuries.

Following the Viking invasions and the death of King Offav in the late 8th century, Mercia experienced periods of decline and fragmentation. It faced challenges from other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, particularly Wessex, which ultimately gained dominance and played a significant role in the eventual unification of England.

By the late 9th and early 10th centuries, Mercia’s power waned, and it was eventually absorbed into the expanding kingdom of Wessex under the rule of King Edward the Elder. After this integration, the kingdom of Mercia ceased to exist as a separate political entity.

Today, the name “Mercia” is no longer used as an official administrative or geographical designation. However, it still holds historical significance and is often invoked when referring to the medieval kingdom and its impact on the region’s history.

The Kingdom of Wessex (lit. ’Kingdom of the West Saxons’) was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in 927.

The Anglo-Saxons believed Wessex was founded by Cerdic and Cynric of the Gewisse, but this may be a legend. The two main sources for the history of Wessex are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule. Cædwalla later conquered SussexKent and the Isle of Wight. His successor, Ine, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes and established a second West Saxon bishopric. The throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies.

During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew, Wessex largely retained its independence. It was during this period that the system of shires was established. Under EgbertSurrey, Sussex, Kent, Essex, Mercia, and parts of Dumnonia[4], were conquered. He also obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830. During the reign of his successor, Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary but was decisively defeated. When Æthelwulf’s son, Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war. Æthelwulf was succeeded in turn by his four sons, the youngest being Alfred the Great.

Picture Credit: [Cropped] Southern Britain in the ninth century.
Attribution: Philg88; Attribution: Wikimedia Foundation (, CC BY 4.0 <;, via Wikimedia Commons

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This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Wessex was invaded by the Danes in 871, and Alfred was compelled to pay them to leave. They returned in 876 but were forced to withdraw. In 878, they forced Alfred to flee to the Somerset Levels but were eventually defeated at the Battle of Edington. During his reign, Alfred issued a new law code, gathered scholars to his court and devoted funds to building ships, organising an army and establishing a system of burhs[5]. Alfred’s son, Edward, captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of his sister, Æthelflæd. Edward’s son, Æthelstan, conquered Northumbria in 927, and England became a unified kingdom for the first time. Cnut the Great, who conquered England in 1016, created Wessex’s wealthy and powerful earldom, but in 1066 Harold Godwinson reunited the earldom with the crown, and Wessex ceased to exist.

King Alfred
King Alfred, commonly known as Alfred the Great, was a prominent ruler of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex in the late 9th century. Born in 848 or 849 AD, he fathered Aethelflaed and Edward. Alfred was King of the West Saxons from 871 to 886 and King of the Anglo-Saxons from 886 until he died in 899.

Alfred was the youngest son of King Æthelwulf and his first wife (Osburh), both of whom died when Alfred was young. Three of Alfred’s brothers, Æthelbald, Æthelberht and Æthelred, reigned before him. Under King Alfred’s rule, considerable administrative and military reforms were introduced, prompting lasting change in England.[6]

After ascending the throne, Alfred spent several years engaged in fighting Viking invasions. He won a decisive victory in the Battle of Edington in 878 and concluded an agreement with the Vikings, dividing England between Anglo-Saxon territory and the Viking-ruled Danelaw, composed of Scandinavian York, the north-east Midlands and East Anglia. Alfred also oversaw the conversion of Viking leader Guthrum to Christianity. He defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, becoming the dominant ruler in England.[7]

Alfred had a reputation as a learned and merciful man of a gracious and level-headed nature who encouraged education, proposing that primary education be conducted in English rather than Latin and improving the legal system and military structure and his people’s quality of life. He was given the epithet “the Great” in the 16th century and with Cnut the Great, one of the only two English monarchs, to be labelled as such.

In the last century, most British children were taught about King Alfred ‘burning the cakes’ – a popular anecdote[8] associated with his reign.

Picture Credit: Statue of Alfred the Great at Wantage, Oxfordshire.
Attribution: Steve Daniels, CC BY-SA 2.0 <;, via Wikimedia Commons

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Whether or not the story about burning the cakes is true, King Alfred is regarded as one of the most important figures in early English history. A summary of his achievements is as follows:

  • Reign and Accomplishments: Alfred ascended to the throne of Wessex in 871 during a time of intense Viking invasions and warfare. He successfully defended his kingdom against Viking incursions and is credited with laying the foundation for the future kingdom of England. Alfred initiated military reforms, built fortified towns, and developed a navy to repel Viking attacks and also fostered a cultural and intellectual revival, promoting education, translation of important texts, and the use of English in written works.
  • Scholarly Pursuits: Alfred had a keen interest in learning and encouraged the translation of significant works from Latin into Old English. He personally translated or supervised the translation of various historical, philosophical, and religious texts, aiming to make knowledge more accessible to his subjects.
  • Legal and Administrative Reforms: Alfred implemented important legal and administrative reforms in his kingdom. He compiled a law code based on older laws and his own additions, known as “Alfred’s Law Code” or “Domboc.”[9] This code emphasised justice, protection of the weak, and the establishment of a well-functioning legal system.
  • Military Campaigns: Alfred engaged in various military campaigns against the Vikings. He won significantly against the Viking forces at the Battle of Edington in 878, which led to the Treaty of Wedmore, resulting in a period of relative peace known as the Danelaw.
  • Legacy: King Alfred’s reign and achievements laid the groundwork for the eventual unification of England under his successors. He is remembered as a wise and just ruler, a military strategist, and a patron of learning. His efforts to defend his kingdom, preserve English culture, and promote education left a lasting impact on English history and identity.

Aethelflaed’s Leadership in Mercia
Most information about Æthelflæd’s reign comes from a narrative of Mercian affairs from 904 to 924 AD, embedded in three manuscripts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. This is known as the ‘Mercian Register’. It provides a different account from another version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, focusing on her brother, Edward the Elder.[10]

Aethelflaed’s Old English name means ‘Noble Beauty’. It is sometimes also written as Aethelflaeda, Ethelflada or Ethelfled.[11] Growing up, Aethelflaed witnessed her father’s relentless efforts to safeguard the kingdom. She grew up in a realm teetering on the brink of disaster, at war with the Vikings. In 878, the royal family was forced to flee to the swamps of Somerset – just months before King Alfred turned the tables against the Vikings and won a stunning victory over the Vikings at the Battle of Edington[12].

King Alfred the Great was deeply engaged in matters of war strategy, implementing cultural reforms, and establishing a comprehensive burh system to ensure the kingdom’s protection. These burhs were fortified towns that served as military defences and hubs of local governance and commerce. Alfred strategically positioned these burhs to effectively fend off Northern invaders, setting a precedent for future rulers to follow.

Picture Credit: “File:4 Æthelflæd window, St Barnabas, Bromborough.jpg” by Rodhullandemu is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0.

Aethelflaed’s leadership in Mercia was marked by her military and political prowess. She showed keen interest in defending her lands against Viking incursions and expanding Mercian territory. Aethelflaed fortified several towns, including Chester and Tamworth, creating a network of defensive strongholds that helped secure the borders of Mercia.

She also led successful military campaigns against the Danes, earning her the reputation of a skilled and fearless warrior. Aethelflaed’s forces, often in coordination with her brother Edward’s armies, pushed back Viking forces and retook several important towns and territories, such as Derby, Leicester, and York.

Aethelflaed’s contributions to Edward’s campaigns and her efforts in governing Mercia were instrumental in the gradual unification of England. She played a crucial role in forging alliances with other Anglo-Saxon rulers, establishing a sense of unity and cooperation among the various regions.

Her diplomatic skills were evident in her relationships with other rulers of the time. She formed alliances with local leaders, both Anglo-Saxon and Viking, to further strengthen her position and protect Mercia’s interests. She maintained diplomatic connections with her brother Edward and coordinated military actions to repel Viking incursions.

Aethelflaed’s achievements were noted by contemporary chroniclers. The “Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,” a historical record of the time (see later), mentions her military successes and describes her as a powerful and influential ruler. She was often called “Lady of the Mercians” or “Queen of the Mercians,” emphasising her prominent status.

Aethelflaed, referred to frequently as Lady of the Mercians, was not known to have been officially crowned as a queen in her own right. While her husband Aethelred held the title of Lord of the Mercians, it is uncertain whether Aethelflaed was ever formally recognised as a queen. The historical record refers to her as “Lady of the Mercians” or “Queen of the Mercians” in some instances, but these titles may have been more honorary or informal rather than denoting her as a reigning queen in the traditional sense.

Following Aethelflaed’s death in 918, Mercia was absorbed into the kingdom of Wessex, ruled by her brother Edward. While some accounts suggest that Aelfwynn (Aethelflaed’s daughter) briefly succeeded her as ruler of Mercia, she was subsequently deposed (see below), and Mercia became fully integrated into the unified kingdom of England.

It is believed that Aelfwynn’s removal from power was likely a result of political dynamics and power struggles within the kingdom. Whether as Queen or not, her rule of Mercia was probably seen as a potential challenge to the authority of her uncle, King Edward, the Elder of Wessex. Edward had been ruling over the unified Anglo-Saxon kingdom, which included Mercia, since the death of Aethelflaed. It is possible that Edward, seeking to maintain central control over the kingdom, deposed Aelfwynn to assert his authority and ensure the full integration of Mercia into his realm.

Some additional details about Aethelflaed’s life and accomplishments are:

  • Marriage and Unification: Aethelflaed married Aethelred, Lord of Mercia, when she was only 16. Their marriage united the kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia in a strategic alliance against Viking invaders who had conquered much of England at the time.
  • Resistance against Vikings: Aethelflaed actively participated in the resistance against Viking invasions alongside her husband. She played a crucial role in diplomatic negotiations and military campaigns to protect and liberate territories held by Viking forces.
  • Leadership and Military Success: Aethelflaed emerged as a commanding ruler in the years leading up to her husband’s death. She demonstrated her military prowess and strategic acumen by defeating Viking troops at the Battle of Tettenhall[13] in 910 AD, an important victory that earned her the title of a ‘warrior queen’.
  • Sole Ruler of Mercia: After Aethelred died in 911, Aethelflaed became the sole ruler of Mercia. She continued her efforts to resist Viking invaders and embarked on military campaigns to reclaim territories held by the Vikings.
  • Reconquest of Cities: Aethelflaed successfully re-conquered the Viking-held city of Derby in 917 and liberated the city of Leicester in 918. These victories demonstrated her strength as a leader and contributed to the pushback against Viking influence in the region.
  • Legacy and Death: Aethelflaed died on 12th June 918 and was buried at St Oswald’s Priory in Gloucester. Her reign and achievements laid the foundations for the eventual unification of England under her nephew, King Athelstan. It is worth noting that Aethelstan, who was the son of King Edward the Elder and grandson of King Alfred the Great, succeeded his uncle Edward as the first recognised English king. He reigned as the king of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 AD and as the king of the English from 927 to 939 AD. Aethelflaed’s contributions in establishing a strong Mercian kingdom and promoting unity among the Anglo-Saxon regions paved the way for Aethelstan’s reign and the consolidation of England as a unified kingdom.
  • Historical Recognition: While Aethelflaed’s accomplishments were noted by contemporary chroniclers such as Henry of Huntingdon and William of Malmesbury, her significance in English history has often been overlooked. However, recent efforts have aimed to highlight her contributions and shed light on her influential role as a ruler and military leader.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle[14] is an interesting historical record of medieval England that provides valuable insights into the events, culture, and political developments of the Anglo-Saxon period. It is a collection of annals written in Old English, spanning several centuries from the 9th to the 12th century:

  • Online Versions: various online versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle can be accessed for free. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is available on websites such as Project Gutenberg ( and the Online Medieval and Classical Library ( These platforms provide translated versions and, in some cases, the original Old English texts with accompanying translations.
  • Printed Editions: Numerous printed editions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle exist, each offering different translations and interpretations (See book list at the end of this paper for details of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Hardcover, by Dorothy Whitelock, David C. Douglas and Susie I Tucker. These editions often provide extensive introductions, annotations, and scholarly commentary to enhance understanding.
  • Academic Libraries: Local university or academic libraries enable you to explore their history book and manuscript collections. They will likely have multiple editions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and related works.
  • Historical and Academic Journals: Scholarly journals focused on medieval history, such as “Anglo-Saxon England[15],” “Early Medieval Europe[16],” and “Speculum[17],” often contain articles and studies that discuss aspects of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. These journals can provide in-depth analysis, interpretations, and discussions of specific entries or themes within the chronicle.
  • Historical Research Institutes and Websites: Institutes dedicated to medieval history, such as the Institute of Historical Research (IHR) in London or the Centre for Medieval Studies at the University of York, may have resources, research papers, and digital archives related to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Additionally, reputable historical websites like the British Library ( or the Medieval Sourcebook ( may have sections on the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle with further information and references.

Picture Credit: A page from the [C] Abingdon II text of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. This entry is for 871, a year of battles between Wessex and the Vikings.
Attribution: Unknown source, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

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Aethelflaed, embodying the multifaceted roles of wife, mother, diplomat, and daughter of King Alfred the Great, transcended the bounds of convention as a warrior-queen, leaving an indelible and resounding legacy on the tapestry of Anglo-Saxon England in the 10th century.

Sources and Further Reading



CAUTION: This paper is compiled from the sources stated but has not been externally reviewed. Parts of this paper include information provided via artificial intelligence which, although checked by the author, is not always accurate or reliable. Neither we nor any third parties provide any warranty or guarantee as to the accuracy, timeliness, performance, completeness or suitability of the information and materials covered in this paper for any particular purpose. Such information and materials may contain inaccuracies or errors and we expressly exclude liability for any such inaccuracies or errors to the fullest extent permitted by law. Your use of any information or materials on this website is entirely at your own risk, for which we shall not be liable. It shall be your own responsibility to ensure that any products, services or information available through this paper meet your specific requirements and you should neither take action nor exercise inaction without taking appropriate professional advice. The hyperlinks were current at the date of publication.

End Notes and Explanations

  1. Source: Compiled from research using information at the sources stated throughout the text, together with information provided by machine-generated artificial intelligence at: [chat] and
  2. Source:
  3. Explanation: The Early Middle Ages is sometimes controversially referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century through the 10th century. The period marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history, following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, and preceding the High Middle Ages (c. 11th to 14th centuries). The alternative term late antiquity, for the early part of the period, emphasises elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while Early Middle Ages is used to emphasise developments characteristic of the earlier medieval period. Source:
  4. Explanation: Dumnonia was a kingdom that existed during the early medieval period in what is now southwestern England. It occupied the area corresponding to present-day Cornwall, Devon, and parts of Somerset and Dorset. The name “Dumnonia” derives from the Celtic tribe known as the Dumnonii, who inhabited the region prior to the Anglo-Saxon and Viking invasions. Dumnonia was distinct from the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the time, such as Wessex, Mercia, and Northumbria. It had its own distinct cultural and linguistic identity, rooted in the Celtic heritage of its inhabitants. The kingdom of Dumnonia played a significant role in the politics and conflicts of the Anglo-Saxon period. Over time, as the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms expanded their influence, Dumnonia faced increasing pressure and eventually became absorbed into the kingdom of Wessex. The exact timeline and process of this integration are not precisely known, but by the 9th and 10th centuries, Dumnonia had lost its independent political status. Today, the region of Dumnonia roughly corresponds to the modern counties of Cornwall and Devon in southwestern England. The area still retains a distinct cultural identity, with elements of Celtic heritage and a rich history shaped by its early medieval kingdom. See more at:
  5. Explanation: A burh, also spelled burgh, was a fortified town or settlement in Anglo-Saxon England. It was a key component of King Alfred the Great’s defensive strategy to protect the kingdom from Viking invasions. Burghs were constructed with defensive walls, gates, and sometimes a ditch or moat surrounding them. The purpose of the burghs was not only to provide physical protection but also to serve as administrative centres and hubs of economic activity. Each burgh had its own local government, which administered justice, collected taxes, and maintained order within the town. They also facilitated trade and commerce, attracting merchants and craftsmen to settle within their walls. The burghs played a crucial role in the defence and governance of the kingdom. They formed a network of fortified towns that acted as a line of defence against Viking raids, enabling the rapid mobilisation of forces and the coordination of military operations. The establishment of the burgh system was a significant development in Anglo-Saxon England and influenced subsequent defensive strategies and urban development.
  6. Source: George Molyneaux, (2015). The Formation of the English Kingdom in the Tenth Century. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-102775-8. Cited at:
  7. Source: Barbara Yorke, (2001). “Alfred, king of Wessex (871–899)”. In Lapidge, Michael; et al. (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-631-15565-2. Cited at:
  8. Explanation: The story of King Alfred burning the cakes is a popular anecdote associated with his reign. According to the legend, during a period when Alfred was in hiding from Viking forces, he sought refuge in the house of a peasant woman. Unaware of his identity, the woman asked Alfred to watch over some cakes she was baking while she attended to other tasks. However, absorbed in his thoughts and responsibilities, Alfred became preoccupied and allowed the cakes to burn. When the woman returned and discovered the burnt cakes, she scolded Alfred for his negligence and lack of attention. It is said that this incident served as a lesson for Alfred, reminding him of the importance of remaining vigilant and focused even during times of adversity. The story of the burnt cakes has become a popular tale illustrating Alfred’s humility, his sense of responsibility, and his commitment to learning from his mistakes. While the historical accuracy of the story is debated, it has endured as a memorable and relatable anecdote associated with King Alfred’s reign. It highlights the challenges he faced during the Viking invasions and the lessons he learned as a wise and humble leader.
  9. Explanation: “King Alfred’s Law Code,” also known as “Domboc,” refers to the legal code implemented by King Alfred the Great of Wessex in the late 9th century. It was a collection of laws intended to provide a standardised and comprehensive legal system for the kingdom. The purpose of Alfred’s Law Code was to ensure justice, maintain order, and establish a fair legal framework for his subjects. It drew inspiration from earlier Anglo-Saxon legal traditions and incorporated elements from biblical law, Roman law, and other contemporary legal practices. The code covered a wide range of legal matters, including crimes, punishments, property rights, family law, and regulations related to trade and commerce. It aimed to address societal issues, protect the weak, and maintain the rights of individuals within the kingdom. Alfred’s Law Code focused on promoting fairness, emphasising the importance of equal treatment under the law. It sought to protect the innocent, punish wrongdoers, and maintain social harmony. The code established different categories of offences and corresponding penalties, taking into account factors such as the severity of the crime and the social status of the individuals involved. One notable aspect of Alfred’s Law Code was its emphasis on education and the dissemination of legal knowledge. Alfred wanted his subjects to understand and follow the law, so he encouraged the translation of legal texts from Latin into Old English. He believed that everyone, regardless of social status, should have access to legal information and be aware of their rights and obligations. While Alfred’s Law Code did not survive in its original form, fragments and references to the code have been found in historical manuscripts. Some of the surviving laws have been attributed to King Alfred’s influence and are considered a crucial contribution to the development of English legal tradition. Alfred’s Law Code is significant not only for its legal provisions but also for its broader impact on English governance. It exemplifies Alfred’s efforts to strengthen the rule of law, promote education, and establish a just society during a challenging period of Viking invasions and political instability.
  10. Source: British Library:
  11. Source:
  12. Source:
  13. Explanation: The Battle of Tettenhall (sometimes called the Battle of Wednesfield or Wōdnesfeld) took place, according to the chronicler Æthelweard, near Tettenhall on 5th August 910. The allied forces of Mercia and Wessex met an army of Northumbrian Vikings in Mercia. After successful raids by Danish Vikings, significant parts of northeastern England, formerly Northumbria, were under their control. Danish attacks into central England had been resisted and effectively reduced by Alfred the Great, to the point where his son, King Edward of Wessex, could launch offensive attacks against the foreigners. Edward was allied with the Mercians under his sister Æthelflæd, and their combined forces were formidable. The allies launched a five-week campaign against Northumbrian Danes in 909. The Vikings quickly sought retaliation for the Northern excursion. In 910, King Edward was in Kent waiting for a fleet he had summoned, and the Vikings, believing that most of the king’s troops were on board ship, launched an invasion of Mercia. They raided as far as the Avon near Bristol and then harried along the Severn until they reached the Bridgnorth area. They now moved east, followed by a joint Mercian and West Saxon army, which caught up with the Vikings near Tettenhall. The raiders were annihilated, and three kings were killed. With the Northern Danes subdued, the forces of Wessex and Mercia could be focused against the Vikings who had settled further south, and there was no further incursion from the north for a generation. Source:
  14. Explanation: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English, chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great (r. 871–899). Multiple copies were made of that original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version. The oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred’s reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116. Almost all of the material in the Chronicle is in the form of annals, by year; the earliest is dated at 60 BC (the annals’ date for Caesar’s invasions of Britain), and historical material follows up to the year in which the chronicle was written, at which point contemporary records begin. These manuscripts collectively are known as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Cited at:
  15. Note: Anglo-Saxon England is an annual peer-reviewed interdisciplinary academic journal covering the study of various aspects of history, language, and culture in Anglo-Saxon England. It has been published since 1972 by Cambridge University Press and is available in print and digital form. Source:
  16. Note: Early Medieval Europe is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history of Europe from the later Roman Empire to the 11th century. It is published by John Wiley & Sons. Source:
  17. Note: Speculum, A Journal of Medieval Studies is a quarterly academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Medieval Academy of America. Established in 1926 by Edward Kennard Rand, it is widely regarded as the most prestigious journal in medieval studies. The journal’s primary focus is on the time period from 500 to 1500 in Western Europe, but also on related subjects such as Byzantine, Hebrew, Arabic, Armenian and Slavic studies. Source:

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