The Ptolemies were successors to Alexander the Great in ruling Egypt. Alexander was not Greek but a Macedonian. He was born in 356 BC in Pella, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia, which was located in the region corresponding to present-day northern Greece. The Macedonians were a distinct ethnic group with their language and culture. Alexander became the king of Macedonia in 336 BC after the assassination of his father, King Philip II, and went on to lead one of the most successful military campaigns in history, establishing one of the largest empires the world had seen up to that point.
After Alexander died on 10th June 323 BC, his vast empire, which stretched from Greece to Egypt and Persia, was divided among his generals in a period known as the Wars of the Diadochi or the Hellenistic period.
Picture Credit: Bust of Ptolemy I Soter, located at the Louvre.
Attribution: Louvre Museum, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ptolemy_I_Soter_Louvre_Ma849.jpg
A New Ruler
Ptolemy I Soter (also known as Ptolemy Lagides or Ptolemy the Savior), one of Alexander’s most trusted generals and a Macedonian nobleman, emerged as the ruler of Egypt. Ptolemy came from the Argead dynasty, the same dynasty as Alexander, and he established the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt in 305 BC. The Ptolemies, a dynasty of Greek-Macedonian rulers, then ruled Egypt for nearly three centuries until the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
This story introduces Ptolemy I Soter and how he and his successors sought to legitimise their rule and establish a stable government in Egypt. They adopted many aspects of Egyptian culture and religion, presenting themselves as pharaohs and maintaining a strong connection with the Egyptian priesthood. They also encouraged Greek immigration.
Ptolemy I Soter, Son of Lagus, Son of Ra
Ptolemy I Soter was described as the “Son of Lagus, Son of Ra”. In ancient Egyptian tradition, pharaohs often referred to themselves as “Son of Ra,” acknowledging their divine lineage as descendants of the sun god Ra. Lagos, Ptolemy I Soter’s father, was a Macedonian noble and general who served under Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great. Ptolemy adopted his father’s name as part of his own – a common practice among the ancient Macedonians.
By combining “Son of Lagus” with “Son of Ra,” the phrase highlights Ptolemy’s connection to both his human lineage and the divine association of the Egyptian pharaohs. It signifies his claim to power and authority as the ruler of Egypt, following the established traditions and legitimising his position in the eyes of the Egyptian people.
Ptolemy I Soter’s life, accomplishments, and legacy are:
- Early Life and Military Career: He was born in 367 BC in Pella, belonged to the Macedonian Greek ruling class and was a close companion and general under Alexander the Great.
- He played a significant role in Alexander’s campaigns, participating in various military campaigns and battles across Persia, Egypt, and the Persian Empire.
- After Alexander died in 323 BC, Ptolemy became one of the Diadochi, the successors who vied for control of Alexander’s vast empire.
- Ptolemy I Soter seized control of Egypt in 305 BC after the death of Perdiccas, one of Alexander’s generals who briefly held power in the region. He established the Ptolemaic dynasty, which ruled Egypt for nearly three centuries until the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC.
- He declared himself pharaoh of Egypt and adopted many of the traditional Egyptian royal customs and titles, seeking to legitimise his rule and win the support of the Egyptian people.
- Ptolemy focused on consolidating his power and expanding the territories under his control. He secured the borders of Egypt and launched military campaigns to expand the kingdom’s influence.
- He established a centralised administrative system and appointed loyal governors and officials to govern the various regions of Egypt. He sought to maintain stability, promote economic prosperity, and ensure the loyalty of his subjects. He also encouraged Greek immigration and continued to develop and enhance the city of Alexandria, encouraging Greek immigration and contributing to its growth as a cultural and economic centre and a hub for trade and commerce.
- He was a great patron of the arts and sciences. He actively supported the development of scholarship and learning in Alexandria, attracting renowned scholars and intellectuals to the city.
- Under Ptolemy’s patronage, the famous Library of Alexandria was established, which became the largest and most important library in the ancient world. The library housed numerous manuscripts and texts from various cultures, promoting intellectual exchange and research.
- Ptolemy also commissioned the construction of the Pharos Lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, in the port city of Alexandria. The lighthouse served as a symbol of the city’s prosperity and a navigational aid for ships.
- Ptolemy I Soter embarked on military campaigns to expand Egypt’s influence and protect its territories. He conducted successful campaigns against neighbouring regions, including Syria, Phoenicia, and parts of Asia Minor.
- Ptolemy also engaged in conflicts with other Diadochi, including Seleucus I Nicator, who established the Seleucid Empire in the eastern territories of Alexander’s empire. These conflicts resulted in shifting borders and occasional alliances between the successors.
Ptolemy I Soter’s rule marked the beginning of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, which endured for nearly three centuries and witnessed the blending of Greek and Egyptian cultures. The Ptolemaic dynasty produced several notable rulers, including Cleopatra VII, one of the most famous figures associated with the dynasty.
The Ptolemies – an Altogether Different Style to Alexander
The Ptolemies did not achieve the same level of military conquest and territorial expansion compared to Alexander. While Alexander rapidly conquered vast territories, including Egypt, the Ptolemies focused on consolidating and ruling over their Egyptian domain. They maintained control over Egypt and parts of neighbouring territories, such as Cyprus, parts of Syria, and parts of the eastern Mediterranean.
The Ptolemies were renowned for their administration and management of Egypt. They developed an efficient bureaucracy to govern the country, managed its agricultural resources, and established a stable economy. Egypt, under Ptolemaic rule, became a centre of trade and intellectual activity, with the famous Library of Alexandria serving as a hub of knowledge and learning.
Picture Credit: Ptolemaic Empire in 200 BC, alongside neighbouring powers.
Attribution: Thomas Lessman (Contact!), CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons
Page URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ptolemaic-Empire_200bc.jpg
Additionally, the Ptolemies made significant contributions to the arts, sciences, and culture. They patronised scholars, scientists, and artists, attracting renowned thinkers and establishing Alexandria as a beacon of knowledge and innovation. Notable achievements during their reign include the work of the mathematician Euclid and the astronomer Claudius Ptolemy (unrelated to the ruling Ptolemaic dynasty), who developed the geocentric model of the universe.
However, it’s important to note that the Ptolemaic rule was not without its challenges and conflicts. They faced periodic uprisings from the native Egyptian population and struggled to maintain control over their territories. Internal power struggles and dynastic disputes within the Ptolemaic family also plagued their rule.
Ultimately, the Ptolemaic dynasty ended with the conquest of Egypt by the Roman general Octavian (later known as Augustus) in 30 BC. Egypt then became a Roman province, marking the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the beginning of Roman rule in Egypt.
The Seleucid Empire
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, who gained control over the eastern territories of Alexander’s empire following his death. The Empire encompassed a vast territory stretching from Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) in the west to the Indus River Valley in the east, including regions such as Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, and parts of Central Asia. It was one of the largest and most powerful successor states to emerge from the fragmentation of Alexander’s empire.
Under Seleucus I Nicator and his successors, the Seleucid Empire adopted a policy of Hellenisation, seeking to spread Greek culture and influence throughout their territories. Greek language, architecture, and customs were promoted, and Greek cities were established as administrative and cultural centres.
The Seleucid Empire faced numerous challenges during its existence. It encountered conflicts with neighbouring powers, including the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt and various regional powers in the east. The empire also had to deal with internal struggles for power and frequent dynastic rivalries among the Seleucid rulers.
The empire reached its height of power under the rule of Antiochus III, also known as Antiochus the Great, who expanded its borders and engaged in military campaigns to establish Seleucid dominance over neighbouring territories. However, the empire’s strength gradually dwindled in the face of external pressures and internal instability.
One significant aspect of the Seleucid Empire was its cultural and religious diversity. It encompassed various peoples, including Greeks, Persians, Babylonians, Jews, and others, each with their own customs and traditions. This diversity sometimes led to conflicts and tensions within the empire.
In the 2nd century BC, the Seleucid Empire faced a series of challenges from rival powers, including the rising Parthian Empire in the east and the expansionist Roman Republic in the west. The empire gradually lost its territories, and by 63 BC, it came under Roman control, marking the end of the Seleucid Empire as an independent state.
Despite its eventual decline and absorption by other powers, the Seleucid Empire left a lasting impact on the regions it once controlled. Its influence on culture, art, and architecture, as well as its role in disseminating Greek knowledge and ideas, contributed to the spread of Hellenistic civilization in the ancient world.
Historical Aspects: A Quick Summary
Berenice’s Lock, also known as the Canal of the Pharaohs or the Waterway of Ptolemy, was an ancient canal in Egypt built during the reign of the Ptolemaic dynasty. It connected the Red Sea with the Nile River, allowing for easier navigation and trade between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. The canal was named after Queen Berenice II, the wife of Ptolemy III, who played a significant role in its construction.
The Gates of Babylon refer to the fabled entrance to the ancient city of Babylon, which was an important cultural and political centre in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq). While Babylon itself predates the Ptolemaic period, the reference may imply the connection between the Ptolemaic dynasty and the region of Mesopotamia.
Alexandria was a prominent city and the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt. Founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC, it became a major centre of Hellenistic civilisation and a hub for trade and intellectual pursuits. The city boasted a renowned library, the Library of Alexandria, which housed a vast collection of ancient texts and manuscripts from different cultures.
Ptolemaic Egypt witnessed a blending of Greek and Egyptian cultures known as cultural syncretism. The Ptolemaic rulers adopted many Egyptian customs and religious beliefs to solidify their rule and gain the support of the Egyptian population. They presented themselves as pharaohs and sought to maintain the traditional order of Egyptian society.
Ptolemaic Egypt experienced a flourishing of art and architecture, combining Greek and Egyptian styles. Monuments and structures such as temples, palaces, and statues showcased the fusion of these influences. The famous Temple of Edfu and the Temple of Horus at Kom Ombo are examples of Ptolemaic-era architecture in Egypt.
One of the best-known figures from the Ptolemaic dynasty is Cleopatra VII. She was the last active ruler of the dynasty and played a significant role in the power struggles of the time. Cleopatra famously aligned herself with powerful Roman leaders such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, and her relationships with them had significant political implications.
The Ptolemaic dynasty faced internal conflicts, struggles for power, and external pressures from rival kingdoms, including the growing Roman Republic. In 30 BC, after the defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, Rome conquered Egypt, marking the end of the Ptolemaic era and the beginning of Roman rule in Egypt.
These are just a few historical aspects related to Ptolemaic Egypt, showcasing the unique blend of Greek and Egyptian influences, the significant role of Alexandria as a cultural and intellectual centre, and the eventual decline and Roman conquest of the dynasty.
The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Ptolemies
The Ptolemaic rulers excelled in administration, cultural patronage, and maritime power. However, they faced challenges related to succession, external threats, and limited integration. Their legacy encompasses the cultural fusion of Greek and Egyptian influences, intellectual contributions, and remarkable artistic and architectural achievements. The decline of their rule ultimately paved the way for Roman domination in Egypt:
- Administration: The Ptolemies were effective administrators, establishing a well-organised bureaucracy that facilitated efficient governance and economic prosperity.
- Cultural Patronage: They promoted Greek culture, arts, and scholarship, fostering a vibrant intellectual environment in Alexandria. They supported the construction of impressive architectural structures and the renowned Great Library.
- Maritime Power: The Ptolemies maintained a strong navy, allowing them to protect their interests in the Mediterranean and expand their influence through maritime trade.
- Succession Challenges: The Ptolemaic dynasty struggled with succession disputes and internal power struggles, leading to political instability and sometimes weak rulership.
- External Threats: The dynasty faced external challenges from rival powers, including the Seleucids (see below) and later the Romans. These conflicts occasionally weakened their hold on power.
- Limited Integration: Despite adopting certain Egyptian customs and presenting themselves as pharaohs, the Ptolemies remained largely separate from the local Egyptian population, leading to some degree of cultural and social divide.
Beliefs and Practices:
- Hellenistic Fusion: The Ptolemies embraced Greek culture and education while incorporating aspects of Egyptian pharaonic traditions. They blended Greek and Egyptian customs to reinforce their legitimacy as rulers.
- Cult of the Ruler: The Ptolemies promoted a cult surrounding their rule, emphasising divine attributes and reinforcing their authority.
- Cultural Fusion: The Ptolemaic period left a lasting legacy of the blending of Greek and Egyptian cultures in Egypt, particularly in Alexandria. This fusion influenced art, architecture, literature, and scholarship.
- Intellectual Contributions: The Ptolemaic rulers’ patronage of scholars and the establishment of the Great Library contributed to the preservation and advancement of knowledge during the ancient world.
- Architectural Marvels: The Ptolemies built impressive structures such as the Lighthouse of Alexandria and the Pharos, both regarded as wonders of the ancient world.
- Decline and Roman Conquest: Ultimately, the Ptolemaic dynasty’s decline led to Egypt’s annexation by the Roman Empire, marking the end of their rule.
I hope to cover all of the above in this paper, but first, I’d like to mention Ptolemic Art.
Ptolemaic art refers to the artistic styles and forms that emerged during the rule of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. It represents a fusion of Greek artistic traditions and Egyptian influences, reflecting the cultural blend that characterised the era.
- Sculpture: Ptolemaic sculptures often depicted rulers, gods, and other mythological figures. They blended Egyptian and Greek styles, resulting in a distinctive combination of realistic portraiture and traditional Egyptian iconography. Sculptures commonly showed rulers wearing Egyptian headdresses but with Greek facial features and idealised physiques.
- Portraiture: Ptolemaic art placed a strong emphasis on realistic portraiture. Portraits of rulers, such as Cleopatra VII and her predecessors, were produced with meticulous attention to detail. They aimed to convey the rulers’ authority, power, and divine attributes.
- Reliefs and Temples: Ptolemaic reliefs adorned temple walls, showcasing scenes of religious rituals, gods, and pharaohs. These reliefs incorporated Egyptian motifs and symbolism while also reflecting Greek artistic techniques.
- Coinage: Ptolemaic coins displayed the images of rulers and gods, blending Greek and Egyptian visual elements. They often featured Greek inscriptions on one side and hieroglyphic or demotic script on the other, reflecting the bilingual nature of the Ptolemaic kingdom.
- Jewellery and Personal Adornments: Ptolemaic jewellery reflected a combination of Greek and Egyptian design elements. It featured intricate goldwork, gemstones, and symbolic motifs, often incorporating Egyptian gods and mythological figures.
Ptolemaic art exemplifies the cultural syncretism that occurred during the Hellenistic period, merging Greek aesthetics with Egyptian traditions. It aimed to convey the power and authority of the ruling dynasty while reflecting the social, religious, and cultural influences of both Greece and Egypt. The art of this period provides valuable insights into the artistic expressions and cultural exchange that characterised the Ptolemaic era.
The Library of Alexandria
Ptolemy’s patronage of the arts and sciences, particularly the establishment of the Library of Alexandria, marked a significant milestone in the preservation and dissemination of knowledge in the ancient world. The Library of Alexandria was, founded during Ptolemy I’s reign and aimed to assemble a comprehensive collection of scrolls and manuscripts from various cultures and disciplines.
Under Ptolemy’s guidance, the library became a beacon of intellectual excellence and a centre for scholarship. It attracted scholars, philosophers, and scientists from all corners of the Hellenistic world, fostering an environment of academic exchange and collaboration. The library’s vast collection, estimated to have housed hundreds of thousands of scrolls, encompassed a wide range of subjects, including literature, history, philosophy, medicine, and mathematics.
In recognising the importance of preserving knowledge and promoting intellectual pursuits, Ptolemy I actively sought out scrolls and texts from across the ancient world, employing a policy of collecting, copying, and translating important works. The library became a hub for scholars to study, translate, and produce new works, fostering advancements in various fields of study and a centre for research and innovation. It housed lecture halls, laboratories, and botanical gardens, providing an environment conducive to scientific exploration and discovery. Ptolemy’s support for scientific endeavours contributed to advancements in fields such as astronomy, mathematics, and medicine, influencing the development of Western science for centuries to come.
Additionally, the library’s influence extended beyond academia. It was pivotal in promoting cultural exchange and intellectual dialogue between different civilisations. The translation efforts undertaken at the library aimed to bridge the gap between Greek and non-Greek works, facilitating cross-cultural understanding and the dissemination of ideas.
The Destruction of the Library
The exact details surrounding the destruction of the Library of Alexandria are not fully known, and historical accounts vary, but it is known that there were multiple incidents and factors that contributed to its demise.
One of the earliest accounts of the library’s destruction dates back to Julius Caesar‘s invasion of Alexandria in 48 BC. According to the ancient historian Plutarch, during the conflict, a fire broke out in the docks of Alexandria and quickly spread to the library, resulting in significant damage to its collection, although the Library seems to have either at least partially survived or been quickly rebuilt.
Another incident occurred several centuries later during the Roman rule of Egypt. In 270 AD, Emperor Aurelian led a military campaign against the city of Alexandria. It is believed that during the ensuing conflicts and siege, the library may have suffered extensive damage or destruction. Additionally, there are mentions of later incidents, including the decrees of Christian Emperor Theodosius I in the late 4th century AD, which targeted pagan institutions, leading to the potential destruction or dispersal of the library’s remaining contents.
It’s important to note that the Library of Alexandria faced various challenges throughout its existence, including natural disasters, political upheavals, and ideological clashes. Over time, the library collection likely suffered from neglect, decay, and the loss of important texts due to a lack of preservation efforts.
Given the lack of detailed historical records and the passage of time, the precise circumstances and extent of the library’s destruction remain a subject of debate and speculation among scholars. Nonetheless, its loss is widely regarded as a significant cultural tragedy, symbolising the disappearance of a vast amount of ancient knowledge and intellectual heritage. While the Library of Alexandria eventually met a tragic fate, its destruction and decline occurring over several centuries, its legacy as a symbol of intellectual pursuit and a beacon of knowledge endure. Ptolemy I’s patronage of the library left an indelible mark on the history of scholarship and the dissemination of knowledge in the ancient world.
War & Peace in the ‘Birdcage of the Muses’
The phrase “War & Peace in the ‘Birdcage of the Muses‘” is a poetic expression that symbolises the coexistence of conflict and tranquillity within the realm of intellectual pursuits, particularly in the context of the Library of Alexandria during the Ptolemaic era.
The term “Birdcage of the Muses” refers to the Library of Alexandria itself, which was often depicted as a sanctuary of knowledge and a haven for scholars. The “Muses” in Greek mythology were the goddesses who presided over the arts and sciences, inspiring creativity and wisdom. Comparing the library to a “birdcage” suggests that it housed a diverse array of scholars, thinkers, and their ideas, contained within the confines of this esteemed institution.
The juxtaposition of “War & Peace” highlights the dual nature of human existence and intellectual pursuits. It acknowledges that while the pursuit of knowledge and the exchange of ideas within the library represented a peaceful and harmonious environment, the world outside the library walls was marked by conflicts and struggles.
Within the library, scholars engaged in intellectual debates, collaborated on research, and advanced their understanding of various disciplines. It was a space where the pursuit of knowledge thrived, fostering a sense of peace and intellectual growth. However, beyond the library’s boundaries, political, social, and military conflicts persisted, representing the “war” aspect of the phrase.
The phrase underscores the idea that intellectual pursuits, represented by the library, exist within a broader context of the human experience. It acknowledges that while the pursuit of knowledge and the cultivation of wisdom can bring about peace and enlightenment within a confined space, the world outside remains subject to the complexities of power struggles, conflicts, and societal challenges.
In essence, “War & Peace in the ‘Birdcage of the Muses‘” serves as a poetic expression that captures the paradoxical relationship between the pursuit of knowledge and the tumultuous nature of the world outside, highlighting the unique role and significance of the Library of Alexandria as a sanctuary for intellectual endeavours amid a backdrop of a world in constant flux.
Kingdom of Gold, Kingdom of the Nile
“Kingdom of Gold, Kingdom of the Nile” is a descriptive expression often used to refer to ancient Egypt. It highlights two significant aspects of the Egyptian civilisation—the abundance of gold and the importance of the Nile River. The term signifies Egypt’s wealth and prosperity, particularly concerning its access to valuable resources like gold.
In ancient times, Egypt was renowned for its reserves of gold and its mastery of goldsmithing and jewellery-making. The kingdom’s wealth, in part, derived from the exploitation of gold mines in Nubia (modern-day Sudan) and other regions under Egyptian control. The phrase encapsulates the notion of Egypt as a land of opulence and riches, emphasising its economic and material prosperity.
“Kingdom of the Nile” emphasises the crucial role of the Nile River in shaping Egyptian civilisation. The Nile River served as a lifeline for the ancient Egyptians, providing fertile land for agriculture, facilitating trade and transportation, and supporting the overall sustenance of the population. The Nile’s annual flooding deposited nutrient-rich silt on the riverbanks, allowing for abundant agricultural production and ensuring the kingdom’s food security. Thus, the Nile River represented the backbone of Egyptian civilisation, enabling its growth, prosperity, and cultural development.
Together, the phrase “Kingdom of Gold, Kingdom of the Nile” evokes the dual aspects of Egypt’s wealth and the vital role of the Nile in shaping its civilisation. It captures the essence of ancient Egypt as a prosperous kingdom enriched by its access to gold and sustained by the bounties of the Nile River.
Two Lands, Two Peoples, One Ruler
The phrase “Two Lands, Two Peoples, One Ruler” refers to the union of Egypt and Macedonia under the rule of Ptolemy I Soter, the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
In ancient Egypt, the term “Two Lands” (Ta-Mehu) referred to Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, symbolising the country’s unification. Upper Egypt, located in the southern part of the Nile Valley, was represented by the white crown, while Lower Egypt, situated in the Nile Delta region, was symbolised by the red crown. Unifying these two regions into a single kingdom marked a significant milestone in ancient Egyptian history.
With the arrival of Alexander the Great and the subsequent establishment of the Ptolemaic dynasty, Egypt became part of the Hellenistic world. As the ruler of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter sought to bridge the Egyptian and Macedonian cultures and create a sense of unity among the diverse population. “Two Peoples” refers to the Egyptian and Macedonian peoples living within the kingdom, acknowledging their distinct identities and backgrounds.
By proclaiming “One Ruler,” the phrase signifies Ptolemy’s position as the sole leader of the unified kingdom, ruling over both Egyptians and Macedonians. It emphasises the concept of a centralised monarchy, with Ptolemy as the unifying figurehead who governed the combined territories.
“Two Lands, Two Peoples, One Ruler” encapsulates the political and cultural fusion of Egypt and Macedonia under Ptolemy I Soter’s rule, highlighting the union of these two distinct lands and peoples under a single authority.
The (Incestuous) Lion’s Brood
“The (Incestuous) Lion’s Brood” is a phrase that refers to the Ptolemaic dynasty, specifically highlighting the familial relationships and intermarriages within the ruling family. It reflects the practice of incestuous marriages among the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt.
In ancient Egypt, the lion was a symbol of royalty and power, representing the divine nature of the pharaoh. The Ptolemaic rulers sought to align themselves with this symbolism by using the lion as an emblem of their dynasty.
The term “brood” refers to offspring or descendants. In the context of the Ptolemaic dynasty, it refers to the children and descendants of the ruling family. However, the inclusion of the word “incestuous” in parentheses suggests a critical perspective on the family’s practice of intermarriage.
To maintain power and preserve their Macedonian heritage, the Ptolemaic rulers engaged in a tradition of marrying their siblings or close relatives. This practice of incestuous marriages aimed to consolidate power within the family and prevent the dilution of their Greek lineage. Notable examples include Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who married his full sister Arsinoe II, and Cleopatra VII, who married her brother Ptolemy XIII.
By referring to the Ptolemaic rulers as “The (Incestuous) Lion’s Brood,” the phrase conveys a sense of critique or moral judgment, emphasising the controversial and taboo nature of their intermarriages. It highlights the dynastic practices that were viewed as unusual or repugnant by other cultures and societies.
The Founding of Alexandria
The city of Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC. After conquering Egypt, Alexander established the city of Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast and named it after himself. It was intended to be a strategic and cosmopolitan hub connecting the Greek and Egyptian worlds.
The Ptolemies, who succeeded Alexander in ruling Egypt, played a significant role in the development and growth of Alexandria. They further expanded and embellished the city, turning it into a thriving cultural, economic, and intellectual centre of the Hellenistic world.
Under Ptolemaic rule, Alexandria became renowned for its grandeur, architectural marvels, and cultural achievements. The Ptolemies encouraged Greek immigration, attracting settlers who contributed to the city’s Greek character. They constructed impressive structures such as the Great Library of Alexandria, which aimed to collect and preserve knowledge from around the world, and the Pharos Lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
The Ptolemies also promoted trade and commerce in Alexandria, making it a major economic centre. The city’s strategic location facilitated maritime trade routes and brought merchants from various regions, fostering a diverse and vibrant marketplace.
Alexander, the Great’s vision in founding Alexandria was followed by the Ptolemies playing a crucial role in shaping and enhancing the city’s cultural and economic significance, solidifying its status as one of the most influential cities of the ancient world.
The Ptolemaic Dynasty after Ptolemy 1 Soter’s Death
After the death of Ptolemy I Soter in 283 BC, his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus ascended to the throne, marking the continuation of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt. Ptolemy II continued his father’s policies and expanded the cultural and intellectual achievements of the dynasty.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC) is regarded as one of the most successful Ptolemaic rulers. He enhanced the prosperity and cultural influence of Egypt. He also continued to develop Alexandria as a centre of learning, commissioning the construction of additional buildings and expanding the library. He actively recruited scholars from Greece and other regions, attracting renowned intellectuals and promoting academic research and collaboration.
Under Ptolemy II’s patronage, the Library of Alexandria flourished, amassing an even greater collection of scrolls and manuscripts. The library became a renowned centre for scholarship and housed works from various cultures and disciplines.
Ptolemy II also sponsored the translation of important texts into Greek, making them accessible to a broader audience and facilitating the exchange of knowledge between different cultures. His reign was marked by political stability and prosperous trade. He expanded Egypt’s influence in the eastern Mediterranean and pursued diplomatic alliances with other Hellenistic kingdoms. His policies fostered economic growth, and Egypt became a significant player in international trade, exporting goods such as grain, papyrus, and luxury items.
Ptolemy III Euergetes
Ptolemy II’s successor, Ptolemy III Euergetes (246-221 BC), continued the dynasty’s expansionist policies and military campaigns. He engaged in successful military expeditions, capturing territories in the Levant and expanding Egypt’s influence in the eastern Mediterranean. Ptolemy III also sought to maintain cultural ties with the Greek world, continuing the patronage of the arts and sciences.
The later Ptolemaic rulers (see below) faced increasing challenges and internal conflicts. As the dynasty progressed, the influence of the native Egyptian population grew, and tensions between Greeks and Egyptians emerged. Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-204 BC) faced internal strife and corruption within the administration, leading to a decline in governance and political stability.
Ptolemy IV Philopator
Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-204 BC): Ptolemy IV, the son of Ptolemy III, faced internal challenges during his reign. His rule was marked by corruption, political infighting, and a decline in governance. He is known for his victory in the Battle of Raphia against the Seleucid Empire, which expanded Egypt’s territory in the eastern Mediterranean.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204-180 BC): Ptolemy V ascended to the throne as a child, and his reign was initially controlled by regents. During this time, Egypt faced several revolts and challenges to its authority. Ptolemy V’s reign is notable for the Rosetta Stone, an artefact that contains inscriptions in multiple languages and has been instrumental in deciphering ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-164 BC): Ptolemy VI, also known as Philometor, faced a power struggle with his younger brother, Ptolemy VIII, leading to a period of divided rule and conflicts. He sought alliances with external powers, such as the Seleucids and Rome, to secure his position. Ptolemy VI was briefly ousted from the throne but eventually regained power with the help of the Seleucid king, Antiochus IV.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator (reigned jointly with Ptolemy VI, 170-164 BC): Ptolemy VII, also known as Ptolemy Memphites, was a younger brother of Ptolemy VI. He was initially co-ruler with Ptolemy VI but was later expelled from Egypt.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Physcon (170-163 BC, 145-116 BC): Ptolemy VIII, also known as Physcon or “the Fat,” was involved in a long power struggle with his brother Ptolemy VI. He ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI for a period but was eventually expelled from Egypt. Ptolemy VIII regained power through military intervention and ruled Egypt in two separate periods.
Ptolemy IX Soter II
Ptolemy IX Soter II (116-107 BC, 88-81 BC): Ptolemy IX, also known as Lathyros, was the son of Ptolemy VIII. He ruled Egypt in two non-consecutive periods, facing conflicts and challenges to his authority. Ptolemy IX’s reign was marked by political instability and rivalries within the ruling family.
Ptolemy X Alexander I
Ptolemy X Alexander I (107-88 BC): Ptolemy X, the son of Ptolemy VIII, succeeded his brother Ptolemy IX. His rule was marked by conflicts with his mother, Cleopatra III, and his sister-wife, Berenice III.
It’s worth noting that the Ptolemaic period during the reigns of these rulers saw significant internal struggles, political rivalries, and conflicts within the ruling family. These challenges, along with external pressures from other regional powers, contributed to the weakening of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in the lead-up to Cleopatra VII’s reign.
Picture Credit: “Statue of Cleopatra VII. Saint Petersburg, The State Hermitage Museum.” by Sergey Sosnovskiy is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0.
Cleopatra VII, the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, came to power in 51 BC. She attempted to maintain Egypt’s independence despite growing Roman influence. Cleopatra aligned herself with prominent Roman leaders; first Julius Caesar and later Mark Antony, to protect Egypt’s interests. However, her involvement in Roman politics ultimately led to the dynasty’s downfall.
The Ptolemaic Dynasty ended in 30 BC with the defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra by the forces of Octavian (later known as Augustus), who became the first Roman emperor. Egypt became a Roman province, marking the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the beginning of Roman rule.
The Ptolemaic Dynasty’s legacy lies in its cultural and intellectual contributions, its fusion of Greek and Egyptian traditions, and its efforts to preserve and advance knowledge through institutions such as the Library of Alexandria. Despite the challenges and conflicts faced during its later years, the dynasty’s rule left a lasting impact on Egypt’s history and the broader Hellenistic world.
Cleopatra VII, also known as Cleopatra Philopator, was not the first Cleopatra to rule Egypt. The Ptolemaic Dynasty, to which Cleopatra VII belonged, had several rulers named Cleopatra who held power in Egypt:
- Cleopatra I Syra (193-176 BC): Cleopatra I was a Macedonian noblewoman who married Ptolemy V Epiphanes. She became his queen consort and regent during the reign of their young son, Ptolemy VI Philometor. Cleopatra I played a significant role in consolidating Ptolemaic power and securing the dynasty’s position in Egypt.
- Cleopatra II Philometora Soteira (175-164 BC, 163-127 BC): Cleopatra II was the daughter of Ptolemy V and Cleopatra I. She first ruled jointly with her brother-husband, Ptolemy VI, during a time of political division. After their separation, Cleopatra II briefly ruled alongside her other brother, Ptolemy VIII. However, their relationship was marked by conflict and power struggles.
- Cleopatra III Philometor Soteira Dikaiosyne Nikephoros (142-101 BC, 101-88 BC): Cleopatra III was the daughter of Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II. She became involved in a power struggle with her husband and brother, Ptolemy VIII. Cleopatra III’s reign was characterised by internal conflicts and rivalry with her sons, particularly Ptolemy X.
- Cleopatra IV Philopator (116-115 BC): Cleopatra IV was the daughter of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III. She briefly ruled alongside her husband-brother, Ptolemy IX, during his first reign.
- Cleopatra V Tryphaena (79-68 BC): Cleopatra V was the daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes and Cleopatra VI Tryphaena. She married her brother, Ptolemy XII, and they ruled jointly. However, her reign was short-lived, and she died before having a significant impact on Egyptian history.
- Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (58-57 BC): Cleopatra VI was the daughter of Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra V. She briefly ruled Egypt alongside her brother-husband, Ptolemy XII.
The numbering and order of the Cleopatras can be somewhat confusing due to intermarriages, sibling relationships, and co-regencies within the Ptolemaic dynasty. Cleopatra VII, also known as Cleopatra the Great or simply Cleopatra, is the most famous Cleopatra and the last ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. She ascended to the throne in 51 BC and played a significant role in the political and cultural events of the time, particularly in her relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.
Review and Concluding Words
After Alexander the Great died in 323 BC, his vast empire, which stretched from Greece to Egypt and Persia, was divided among his generals in a period known as the Wars of the Diadochi or the Hellenistic period. Ptolemy I Soter, one of Alexander’s most trusted generals and a Macedonian nobleman, emerged as the ruler of Egypt. Ptolemy hailed from the Argead dynasty, the same dynasty as Alexander, and he established the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt in 305 BC. The Ptolemies, a dynasty of Greek-Macedonian rulers, would then rule Egypt for nearly three centuries until the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
Ptolemy I’s patronage of the arts and sciences, particularly the establishment of the Library of Alexandria, contributed to the flourishing of knowledge and intellectual pursuits in the ancient world. The library attracted scholars from various disciplines, leading to advancements in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy.
Ptolemy I Soter’s military campaigns and territorial expansions strengthened Egypt’s position in the eastern Mediterranean and ensured its security against rival powers. His administrative reforms and focus on economic development helped Egypt thrive economically and maintain stability throughout his reign. His adoption of Egyptian customs and titles, alongside the promotion of Greek culture, created a unique fusion of Greek and Egyptian traditions that characterised the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Ptolemy I Soter’s legacy extended beyond his own rule. His descendants continued his policies and shaped the course of Egyptian history, with figures like Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Cleopatra VII leaving lasting imprints on the dynasty and the world. It’s important to note that while Ptolemy I Soter’s reign brought prosperity and cultural exchange to Egypt, it was not without its challenges and conflicts. The Ptolemaic dynasty faced periodic revolts, external threats, and internal power struggles. However, Ptolemy I’s astute leadership and contributions laid the foundation for the enduring legacy of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
Ptolemy I Soter and his successors sought to legitimise their rule and establish a stable government in Egypt. They adopted many aspects of Egyptian culture and religion, presenting themselves as pharaohs and maintaining a strong connection with the Egyptian priesthood.
The Ptolemies did not achieve the same level of military conquest and territorial expansion compared to Alexander the Great. While Alexander rapidly conquered vast territories, including Egypt, the Ptolemies focused on consolidating and ruling over their Egyptian domain. They maintained control over Egypt and parts of neighbouring territories, such as Cyprus, parts of Syria, and parts of the eastern Mediterranean.
The Ptolemies were renowned for their administration and management of Egypt. They developed an efficient bureaucracy to govern the country, managed its agricultural resources, and established a stable economy. Egypt, under Ptolemaic rule, became a centre of trade and intellectual activity, with the famous Library of Alexandria serving as a hub of knowledge and learning.
Additionally, the Ptolemies made significant contributions to the arts, sciences, and culture. They patronised scholars, scientists, and artists, attracting renowned thinkers and establishing Alexandria as a beacon of knowledge and innovation. Notable achievements during their reign include the work of the mathematician Euclid and the astronomer Claudius Ptolemy (not related to the ruling Ptolemaic dynasty), who developed the geocentric model of the universe.
However, it’s important to remember that the Ptolemaic rule was not without challenges and conflicts. They faced periodic uprisings from the native Egyptian population and struggled to maintain control over their territories. Internal power struggles and dynastic disputes within the Ptolemaic family also plagued their rule.
Ultimately, the Ptolemaic dynasty came to an end with the conquest of Egypt by the Roman general Octavian in 30 BC. Egypt then became a Roman province, marking the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the beginning of Roman rule in Egypt. As is often said, the rest is history.
Picture Credit: “Ptolemaic Egypt, Berenike II, Arsinoe III, Ptolemy III, IV, Ancient Coins in the British Museum, the World of Alexander the Great” by Ahala is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.
Sources and Further Reading
- Ptolemaic Kingdom, at: https://youtu.be/SGVMPnIAGCk
- Ptolemy the Saviour – Alexander’s General who Became Pharaoh of Egypt, at: https://youtu.be/x2DjZEYnBso
- Ptolemaic Egypt – Berenice’s Lock and the Gates of Babylon, at: https://youtu.be/D_d0ybJaFgc
- Ptolemaic Egypt – The Great Revolt, at: https://youtu.be/D2m9Tk8pgpo
- Ptolemaic Egypt – Ptolemy I: Son of Lagus, Son of Ra, at: https://youtu.be/UClxg7rzaZw
- A New Pharaoh: The Life of Ptolemy I Soter, at: https://youtu.be/MiHLRgDNK-s
- Ptolemaic Egypt – War & Peace in the ‘Birdcage of the Muses’, at: https://youtu.be/6zz4H7pkxPY
- Ptolemaic Egypt – Kingdom of Gold, Kingdom of the Nile, at: https://youtu.be/PeUjWfp_DYw
- Ptolemaic Egypt – Two Lands, Two Peoples, One Ruler, at: https://youtu.be/06jU6l2x0RY
- Ptolemaic Egypt – The (Incestuous) Lion’s Brood, at: https://youtu.be/AZFkIH2RXqQ
- A History of the Ptolemaic Empire, by Günther Hölbl, Copyright 2001, published 28 Sept. 2000 by Routledge, available from: https://www.routledge.com/A-History-of-the-Ptolemaic-Empire/Holbl/p/book/9780415234894/
- Ptolemy I Soter: A Self-Made Man, Paperback – Illustrated, by Timothy Howe (Editor) 26 Oct. 2018, published by Oxbow Books, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Ptolemy-I-Soter-Self-Made-Man/dp/1789250420/
- Ptolemy of Egypt Paperback, by Walter M. Ellis (Author) 12 April 2010, published by Routledge, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Ptolemy-Egypt-Walter-M-Ellis/dp/0415588987/
- Comparing the Ptolemaic and Seleucid Empires: Integration, Communication, and Resistance, Paperback, by Christelle Fischer-Bovet (Editor) 16 Feb. 2023, by Cambridge University Press, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Comparing-Ptolemaic-Seleucid-Empires-Communication/dp/1108749526/
- Alexander the Great: An Enthralling Guide to the Rise of the Macedonian Empire, Its Ruler, and His Conquests (Greek Mythology and History), Part of Greek Mythology and History (6 books), by Billy Wellman 8 Apr 2023, Srlf published, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Alexander-Great-Enthralling-Macedonian-Conquests/dp/B0C1JBC4F7/
- The Last Pharaohs: Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC, Paperback, by J. G. Manning (Author) 7 Oct. 2012, published by Princeton University Press, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Last-Pharaohs-Egypt-Ptolemies-305-30/dp/0691156387/
- The Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt: The History and Legacy of the Ptolemy Dynasty and the End of the Egyptian Empire, Paperback, by Charles River Editors (Author) 3 Nov. 2017, published by CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Ptolemaic-Kingdom-Ancient-Egypt-Egyptian/dp/1979310084/
- The Ptolemies, Rise of a Dynasty: Ptolemaic Egypt 330–246 BC, Hardcover, by John D Grainger (Author) 3 Aug. 2022, published by Pen & Sword Military, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Ptolemies-Rise-Dynasty-Ptolemaic-330-246/dp/1399090224/
- The Perdiccas Years, 323 320 BC: Alexander’s Successors at War, Hardcover, by Hughes Tristan (Author) 2 Feb. 2022, published by Pen & Sword Military, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Perdiccas-Years-323-Alexanders-Successors/dp/1526775115/
- The Ptolemies, Apogee and Collapse: Ptolemaic Egypt 246–146 BC, Hardcover, by John D Grainger (Author) 30 Sept. 2023, published by Pen & Sword Military, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Ptolemies-Apogee-Collapse-Ptolemiac-246-146/dp/1399090178/
- Before & After Alexander, Hardcover, by Richard Billows (Author) 28 Jun. 2018, published by Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd, available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Before-After-Alexander-Richard-Billows/dp/0715652818/
CAUTION: This paper is compiled from the sources stated but has not been externally reviewed. Parts of this paper include information provided via artificial intelligence which, although checked by the author, is not always accurate or reliable. Neither we nor any third parties provide any warranty or guarantee as to the accuracy, timeliness, performance, completeness or suitability of the information and materials covered in this paper for any particular purpose. Such information and materials may contain inaccuracies or errors and we expressly exclude liability for any such inaccuracies or errors to the fullest extent permitted by law. Your use of any information or materials on this website is entirely at your own risk, for which we shall not be liable. It shall be your own responsibility to ensure that any products, services or information available through this paper meet your specific requirements and you should neither take action nor exercise inaction without taking appropriate professional advice. The hyperlinks were current at the date of publication.
End Notes and Explanations
- Source: Compiled from research using information at the sources stated throughout the text, together with information provided by machine-generated artificial intelligence at: bing.com [chat] and https://chat.openai.com ↑
- Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great’s father, was assassinated by a royal bodyguard, Pausanias of Orestis. ↑
- Explanation: The Wars of the Diadochi, or Wars of Alexander’s Successors, were a series of conflicts that were fought between the generals of Alexander the Great, known as the Diadochi, over who would rule his empire following his death. The fighting occurred between 322 and 281 BC. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Diadochi ↑
- Explanation: In classical antiquity, the Hellenistic period covers the time in Mediterranean history after Classical Greece, between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the death of Cleopatra VII (30 BC) followed by the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. The Ancient Greek word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was gradually recognised as the name for Greece, from which the word Hellenistic was derived. “Hellenistic” is distinguished from “Hellenic” in that the latter refers to Greece itself, while the former encompasses all ancient territories under Greek influence, in particular the East after the conquests of Alexander the Great. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellenistic_period ↑
- Explanation: The Macedonians were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece. Essentially an ancient Greek people, they gradually expanded from their homeland along the Haliacmon valley on the northern edge of the Greek world, absorbing or driving out neighbouring non-Greek tribes, primarily Thracian and Illyrian. They spoke Ancient Macedonian, which is usually classified by scholars as a dialect of Northwest Doric Greek, and occasionally as a distinct sister language of Greek or an Aeolic Greek dialect. However, the prestige language of the region during the Classical era was Attic Greek, replaced by Koine Greek during the Hellenistic era. Their religious beliefs mirrored those of other Greeks, following the main deities of the Greek pantheon, although the Macedonians continued Archaic burial practices that had ceased in other parts of Greece after the 6th century BC. Aside from the monarchy, the core of Macedonian society was its nobility. Similar to the aristocracy of neighbouring Thessaly, their wealth was largely built on herding horses and cattle. Sourced from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Macedonians ↑
- Explanation: Alexandria is the second largest city in Egypt and the largest city on the Mediterranean coast. Founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. Alexandria grew rapidly and became a major centre of Hellenic civilisation, eventually replacing Memphis, in present-day Greater Cairo, as Egypt’s capital. Called the “Bride of the Mediterranean” internationally, Alexandria is a popular tourist destination and an important industrial centre due to its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. The city extends about 40 km (25 mi) along the northern coast of Egypt. Alexandria grew rapidly, becoming a major centre of Hellenic civilisation and replacing Memphis as Egypt’s capital during the reign of the Ptolemaic pharaohs who succeeded Alexander. It retained this status for almost a millennium, through the period of Roman and Eastern Roman rule until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641 AD, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo). Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its Great Library, the largest in the ancient world; and the Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Alexandria was the intellectual and cultural centre of the ancient Mediterranean for much of the Hellenistic age and late antiquity. It was at one time the largest city in the ancient world before eventually being overtaken by Rome. The city was a major centre of early Christianity and was the centre of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, which was one of the major centres of Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. By 641, the city had already been largely plundered and lost its significance before re-emerging in the modern era. From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major centre of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centres in the world, because it profited both from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria ↑
- Explanation: The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (280–247 BC). It has been estimated to have been at least 100 metres (330 ft) in overall height. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, for many centuries it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world. The lighthouse was severely damaged by three earthquakes between 956 and 1323 AD and became an abandoned ruin. ↑
- Explanation: Hellenisation refers to the spread and adoption of Greek culture, language, and customs in regions outside of Greece, particularly during the Hellenistic period (323 BC to 31 BC) and the subsequent Roman Empire. It was a process by which the influence of ancient Greek civilisation extended beyond its original borders and influenced the societies and cultures of other regions. The word is derived from “Hellenes,” which was the ancient Greek term for the Greeks themselves. As Alexander the Great conquered vast territories, Greek culture spread and interacted with the existing cultures and civilisations of the conquered regions. This cultural exchange resulted in the assimilation of the Greek language, literature, philosophy, art, architecture, and other aspects of Greek culture in these areas. Hellenisation had a profound impact on the regions that came under Greek influence. It influenced the development of literature and education, introduced new architectural styles and urban planning, and played a significant role in the spread of Greek philosophy and religious practices. Some examples of Hellenistic cities that became centres of Greek culture include Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in present-day Turkey. But Hellenisation was not a one-way process. While Greek culture influenced these regions, the cultures of these regions also influenced Greek society. It led to a synthesis of different cultural elements, resulting in a diverse and vibrant cultural landscape in the Hellenistic and later periods. ↑
- Explanation: Syncretism is the practice of combining different beliefs and various schools of thought. Syncretism involves the merging or assimilation of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. Syncretism also occurs commonly in expressions of art and culture, known as eclecticism, as well as in politics, known as syncretic politics. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syncretism ↑
- Source: Brian Haughton (1 February 2011), “What happened to the Great Library at Alexandria?”, World History Encyclopedia Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria ↑
- Source: Roy MacLeod (2000), “Introduction: Alexandria in History and Myth”, in Roy MacLeod (ed.), The Library of Alexandria: Centre of Learning in the Ancient World, New York City, New York and London, England: I.B.Tauris Publishers, pp. 1–18, ISBN 978-1-85043-594-5 Cited at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria ↑